Baseline testing is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance information. Baseline testing use the information collected to made the changes in the application to improve performance and capabilities of the application. Baseline compares present performance of application with its own previous performance.
Benchmarking testing is the process of comparing application performance with respect to industry standard which is given by some other organization. Benchmark informs us where our application stands with respect to others. Benchmark compares our application performance with other company’s application’s performance.
Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.
Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.
Difference between Verification and Validation:
•Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.
•Verification takes place before validation.
•Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation evaluates product.
•Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection ,where as in Validation testing of actual product.
•Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.
•Branch Coverage is testing performed in order to ensure that every branch of the software is executed atleast. To perform the Branch coverage testing we take the help of the Control Flow Graph.
•Decision coverage testing ensures that every decision taking statement is executed atleast once.
•Both decision and branch coverage testing is done to ensure the tester that no branch and decision taking statement, will not lead to failure of the software.
•To Calculate Branch Coverage:
Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.
•Retesting is done to verify defect fix previous in now working correctly where as regression is perform to check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.
•Retesting is specific and is performed on the bug which is fixed where as in regression is not be always specific to any defect fix it is performed when any bug is fixed.
•Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier where as regression concern with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.
•Retesting has higher priority over regression.
Mutation testing is a performed to find out the defect in the program. It is performed to find put bugs in specific module or component of the application. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions:
Competent programmer hypothesis: according this hypothesis we suppose that program write the correct code of the program.
Coupling effect: according to this effect collection of different set of test data can also find large and complex bugs.
Bug Leakage: When customer or end user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in pervious build then this is called as Bug Leakage.
Bug release: is when a build is handed to testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of bug is low. It is done when customer want the application on the time. Customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to client for the future improvement chances.
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over to software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
Beta testing: beta testing becomes active. It is performed by end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.
Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey.
Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop. Dumb monkey, are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.
Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.
•The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.
•The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.
•Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.
We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:
•Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.
•Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.
When tester performs testing of application by using random input from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing.
Random testing involve following procedures:
•Selection of input domain.
•Randomly selecting any input from input domain.
•Using these test input testing of application is performed.
•The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise it is a success.
Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end user.
We need Test Strategy for the following reasons:
1. To have a signed, sealed, and delivered document, where the document contains details about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.
2. Test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.
3. Test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.
4. It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.
5. When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues requiring resolution.
The test strategy is decided first, before lower level decisions are made on the test plan, test design, and other testing issues.
•The bug is assigned to development project manager who will analyze the bug .He will check whether it is a valid defect. If not valid bug is rejected then status is REJECTED.
•If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When bug is not part of the current release .Such defects are POSTPONED
•Now, Tester checks whether a similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE
•When bug is assigned to developer. During this stage bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS
•Once code is fixed. Defect is assigned a status FIXED
•Next the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED
•If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all to Bug Life Cycle.
Error Guessing is a test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.
Error Seeding is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason of monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.
Compatibility testing is to evaluate the application compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, backwards compatibility, computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals. Example, If Compatibility testing is done on a Game application, before installing a game on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the computer specification that whether it is compatible with the computer having that much of specification or not.
A test harness is a collection of software and test data required to test the application by running it in different testing condition like stress, load, data- driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:
•Test execution engine
•Test script repository
Automation testing is the use of a tool to control the execution of tests and compare the actual results with the expected results. It also involves the setting up of test pre-conditions.
Statement Coverage is a metric used in White Box Testing. Statement coverage is used to ensure that all the statement in the program code is executed at least once. The advantages of Statement Coverage are:
•Verifies that written code is correct.
•Measures the quality of code written.
•Determine the control flow of the program.
•To Calculate Statement Coverage:
•Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. of Statements.
There are two types of testing:
•Static testing: Static testing is a technique used in the earlier phase of the development life cycle. The code error detection and execution of program is not concern in this type of testing. Also known as non-execution technique. The Verification of the product is performed in this testing technique like Code Reviews, Inspections, Walkthroughs are mostly done in this stage of testing.
•Dynamic testing: Dynamic Testing is concern with the execution of the software. This technique is used to test the dynamic behavior of the code. Most of the bugs are identified using this technique. These are the Validation activities. It uses different methodologies to perform testing like Unit Tests, Integration Tests, System Tests and Acceptance Testing, etc.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by the end users on the applications before accepting the application.
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed for the Beta testing phase, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.
Beta testing: is performed by the end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.
Gamma Testing: Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. This testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.