Research Methodology Interview Questions & Answers

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Research Methodology Interview Questions & Answers

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Research Methodology Interview Questions

Research Methodology Interview Questions
    1. Question 1. What Is Research Methodology?

      Answer :

      Research methodology is a collective term for the structured process of conducting research. There are many different methodologies used in various types of research and the term is usually considered to include research design, data gathering and data analysis.
      There are two main types of research methodology,

      1. Quantitative methodology,
      2. Qualitative methodology.

    2. Question 2. When Is A Qualitative Research Methodology Appropriate?

      Answer :

      A qualitative research study is appropriate when you need to tap into the hearts and minds of the customer.
      A highly subjective research discipline, qualitative research is specifically designed to look "beyond the percentages" to gain an understanding of the customer's feelings, impressions and viewpoints. Such intuitive, highly subjective personal input can only be obtained through qualitative research.

      Strengths:

      • Small samples, sharp focus: Qualitative research is laser-focused, dealing only with smaller samples.
      • Probing interviews: Expert moderators, unencumbered by the time constraints of a quantitative survey, use a multitude of techniques during lengthy interviews to obtain in-depth information.
      • Rich responses: The interviews, which last as long as two hours, allow the moderator to elicit extremely candid, highly complex responses.

    3. Question 3. When Are Both Quantitative And Qualitative Methods Beneficial?

      Answer :

      Certain types of projects benefit from the strategic application of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. A recent study we completed for a computer monitor manufacturer illustrates this point.

    4. Question 4. How Can I Determine Product Demand After A Change In Price, Features And/or Distribution Channels?

      Answer :

      Research's simulation software is designed to analyze and answer these types of "what if?" scenarios. By changing the product's price or features, the simulation software will automatically show the resulting price share of your company's product and all competing products. The simulation software is custom written based on the results of a choice modeling survey.

      With the simulation software, we can see the incremental change in share gained from a change in product, as well as which competitors products lose the market share your company gains. This is quite valuable in assessing possible competitor responses.

    5. Question 5. What Is The Observational Method Of Research?

      Answer :

      In naturalistic observational research the observer does not intervene at all. The researcher is invisible and works hard not to interrupt the natural dynamics of the situation being investigated.

    6. Question 6. What Do I Need To Consider When Doing Observational Research?

      Answer :

      • Try to be “invisible”, do not get involved in the dynamics of the situation.
      • Use all of your senses, not just your sense of vision. Record the sounds, smells and tastes (if applicable).
      • Record your impressions and feelings. How do you feel while observing? Were you frightened, surprised, anxious, amused, excited? Relate what you were feeling to what you were observing.
      • Record the context of the situation: place, time, participants, numbers of participants, gender of participants, etc.
      • Record what you were thinking during the observation. Did the situation remind you of something similar? Had you experienced something similar. What do you think the participants were thinking about while you were observing?
      • Record all of your information in a journal. Use shorthand or abbreviations if necessary.

       

    7. Question 7. What Are The Issues, Or Concerns In Conducting Observational Research?

      Answer :

      • Completeness of information recorded is critical to gain a complete understanding of the dynamics of the situation.
      • Accuracy of the information recorded. Did you miss anything? Did you record it exactly as you observed it?
      •  Bias. Did I “add” to what I observed by presuming or assuming something that did not exist?
      • Would someone else who had not observed the same thing be able to get a clear, correct picture of what you observed by reading your notes?
      • Confidentiality. Be sure not to name people or places in your presentation of the information. You have not asked for their permission to conduct research, and so therefore they have to right to remain anonymous. Refer to the general situation, for example, a school playground, an urban mall, a farm, a family gathering, etc.
      • Videotaping, audiotaping or taking photographs of the situation is infringing on the participant’s rights to privacy. Use only your written notes.

       

    8. Question 8. What Is The Interview Method Of Research?

      Answer :

      Interview research usually involves the interviewer asking a series of questions which are then recorded in some manner.

    9. Question 9. What Do I Need To Consider When Doing Interviews?

      Answer :

      • Prepare your interview questions in advance, and share them with the participant(s).
      • Tape record, or videotape record the interview.
      • Do not be afraid to ask questions if they arise during the interview, even if you did not have them listed before the interview.
      • After the interview, you will need to transcribe (copy) exactly what was said during the interview. This can be a very slow, and timing consuming process, but it is critical that you copy exactly what was said.
      • After you have copied out the interview, replay the interview again and compare it to your notes. Make any corrections necessary.
      • Share the written copy of the interview with the participant to make sure that they agree with, and affirm the contents of the interview.

    10. Question 10. What Are The Issues, Or Concerns In Conducting Interviews?

      Answer :

      • Completeness of information recorded is critical to gain a complete understanding of the accuracy of the interview.
      • Accuracy of the information recorded. Did you miss anything? Did you record it in written form exactly as was said by the participant?
      • Bias. Did I “add” to what I observed by presuming or assuming something that was not stated directly by the participant?
      • Would someone else who had not interviewed the participant be able to get a clear, correct picture of what was discussed by reading your notes?
      • Confidentiality. Be sure you have asked for their permission to be interviewed, and that they are aware of the purpose and intended audience of the interview.

    11. Question 11. What Is The Case Study Method Of Research?

      Answer :

      A case study is an intensive study of one individual. Typically, the case study may involve interviews, observation, experiments and tests.

    12. Question 12. What Do I Need To Consider When Doing Case Studies?

      Answer :

      • Prepare your research questions in advance: What kinds of information do you want to know?
      • Consider many different forms of information sources: Online websites, paper-based sources such as encyclopedias, journals, magazines and newspapers.
      • If the case study is of a person who can be interviewed, review the following:
      • Prepare your interview questions in advance, and share them with the participant(s).
      • Tape record, or videotape record the interview.
      • Do not be afraid to ask questions if they arise during the interview, even if you did not have them listed before the interview.
      • After the interview, you will need to transcribe (copy) exactly what was said during the interview. This can be a very slow, and timing consuming process, but it is critical that you copy exactly what was said.
      • After you have copied out the interview, replay the interview again and compare it to your notes. Make any corrections necessary.
      • Share the written copy of the interview with the participant to make sure that they agree with, and affirm the contents of the interview.
      • Case studies may also include observational research, experiments and tests. Consider what other types of research are appropriate.

    13. Question 13. What Are The Issues, Or Concerns In Conducting Case Studies?

      Answer :

      • Completeness of information recorded is critical to gain a complete understanding of the accuracy of the case study. Have I checked every conceivable resource for information?
      • Because of the variety of information sources, be sure that you have reviewed all of the issues or concerns for each of the research types.
      • Bias. Did I “add” to what I observed by presuming or assuming something that was not written about, spoken by or observed of the person?
      • Would someone else who had not case studied the participant be able to get a clear, correct picture of what was discussed by reading your report?
      • Confidentiality. Be sure you have asked for their permission to be case studied, and that they are aware of the purpose and intended audience of the report.

    14. Question 14. What Is The Topical Method Of Research?

      Answer :

      A topical research project involves the acquisition, synthesis, organization and presentation of information.

    15. Question 15. What Do I Need To Consider When Doing Topical Research?

      Answer :

      • Prepare your research questions in advance: What kinds of information do you want to know?
      • Consider many different forms of information sources: Online websites, paper-based sources such as encyclopedias, journals, magazines and newspapers.
      • If the case study is of a person who can be interviewed, review the following:
      • Prepare your interview questions in advance, and share them with the participant(s).
      • Tape record, or videotape record the interview.
      • Do not be afraid to ask questions if they arise during the interview, even if you did not have them listed before the interview.
      • After the interview, you will need to transcribe (copy) exactly what was said during the interview. This can be a very slow, and timing consuming process, but it is critical that you copy exactly what was said.
      • After you have copied out the interview, replay the interview again and compare it to your notes. Make any corrections necessary.
      • Share the written copy of the interview with the participant to make sure that they agree with, and affirm the contents of the interview.

    16. Question 16. What Are The Issues, Or Concerns In Conducting Topical Research Studies?

      Answer :

      • Completeness of information recorded is critical to gain a complete understanding of the topic. Have I checked every conceivable resource for information?
      • Because of the variety of information sources, be sure that you have reviewed all of the issues or concerns for each of the research types.
      • Bias. Did I “add” to what I observed by presuming or assuming something that was not written about, spoken by or observed during the research?
      • Would someone else who had not researched the topic be able to get a clear, correct picture of what the topic was all about by reading your report?
      • Confidentiality. If you have interviewed or case studied an individual connected with the topic, be sure you have asked for their permission to be studied, and that they are aware of the purpose and intended audience of the report.

    17. Question 17. What Is The Experimental Method Of Research?

      Answer :

      Experimental researchers manipulate variables, randomly assign participants to various conditions and seek to control other influences.

    18. Question 18. What Is The Survey Method Of Research?

      Answer :

      Conducting research using a survey involves going out and asking questions about the phenomenon of interest.

    19. Question 19. What Is Q Methodology?

      Answer :

      Q Methodology is a research method used to study people's "subjectivity" -- that is, their viewpoint. Q Methodology was originally developed by William Stephenson (1902-1989), an Englishman trained in physics (Ph.D., 1926), psychology (Ph.D., 1929) and psychometrics under the tutelage of Charles Spearman and Sir Cyril Burt. It has been used both in clinical settings for assessing patients, as well as in research settings to examine how people think about a topic.

    20. Question 20. How Do I Conduct A Q Study?

      Answer :

      The basic steps of the Q sorting procedure are as follows. A heterogeneous set of items (called a Q sample) is drawn from the concourse. A group of respondents (P set) is instructed to rank-order (Q sort) the Q sample along a standardized continuum according to a specified condition of instruction. Participants do this according to their own likes and dislikes thus according to their own 'psychological significance'. The resulting Q sorts are submitted to correlation and factor analysis. Interpreted results are factors of 'operant subjectivity'.

    21. Question 21. What Do We Mean By "scientific Study" And Why Is This Important?

      Answer :

      A study is regarded as scientific if the following three standards have been met:

      • Structured observations are made from which valid conclusions may be drawn.
      • The research and its conclusions are subjected to peer review.
      • The findings are refutable.

    22. Question 22. Why Is Scientific Study Important?

      Answer :

      It enables us to acquire knowledge based on verifiable evidence.

    23. Question 23. What Does Double-blind Mean?

      Answer :

      When a "double-blind" procedure is used in a study, it means that neither the participants nor the researchers know which condition the participants have been assigned to. For example, a researcher may want to find out whether it is the sugar in the chocolate or just the idea that eating chocolate makes people happy, that improves a person’s mood. One way to do this, would be to use a double-blind study in which participants were given either normal chocolate or sugar free chocolate and neither the researchers nor the participants will be able to tell which chocolate they had been given.

    24. Question 24. Why Is This Important?

      Answer :

      The "double-blind" procedure is one of a number of general control procedures that is designed to minimise the effect of two things:

      • Experimenter effects, which occur as a result of what the researcher knows about the participant. The researcher may unwittingly treat participants slightly differently based on this knowledge. For example, if a researcher wants to study whether science students differ in numerical skills compared to art students using a specific numerical task, he/she might explain the instructions slightly differently to the different groups based on this knowledge, which may have an impact on how respondents perform on the task. Thus, we cannot know if their performance is based on their numerical skills or whether they were given more/less detailed instruction.
      • Demand characteristics, which are details about the study that indicate to the participants how to behave. For example, a researcher wants to establish whether people can detect slight differences in air temperature. If people are told when they will be exposed to cold air and when to warm air, it would be very difficult to discern if their responses are the result of the ability to feel the change in air temperature (which is what the study is about) or whether it is because they were told the air temperature has changed.

    25. Question 25. Distinction Between Research Methods And Research Methodology?

      Answer :

       

    26. Question 26. Difference Between Census Survey And Sample Survey?

      Answer :

       

    27. Question 27. Analyse Multi-stage And Sequential Sampling?

      Answer :

      Multi-stage sampling:
      In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated.

      Sequential sampling:
      Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval, conducts his study, analyses the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique. It is not expensive, not time consuming and not workforce extensive. This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. Due to the aforementioned disadvantages, results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population.

    28. Question 28. Why Should A Manger Know About Research When The Job Entails Managing People, Products, Events, Environments, And The Like?

      Answer :

      Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Research is the organized and systematic inquiry or investigation which provides information for solving a problem or finding answers to a complex issue.

      Research in business:
      Often, organization members want to know everything about their products, services, programs, etc. Your research plans depend on what information you need to collect in order to make major decisions about a product, service, program, etc. Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems.
      The more focused you are about your resources, products, events and environments what you want to gain by your research, the more effective and efficient you can be in your research, the shorter the time it will take you and ultimately the less it will cost you.
      Manager’s role in research programs of a company:
      Managing people is only a fraction of a manager's responsibility - they have to manage the operations of the department, and often have responsibilities towards the profitability of the organization. Knowledge of research can be very helpful for a good manager.

    29. Question 29. How Do You Evolve Research Design For Exploratory Research? Briefly Analyze.

      Answer :

      Research design for exploratory research:
      Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods.
      It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”

    30. Question 30. Explain The Important Concepts In Research Design?

      Answer :

      The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the plan is the overall scheme or program of research. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting observations. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, “A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.”

    31. Question 31. Components Of Research Design?

      Answer :

      It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. They are:

      • Dependent and Independent variables
      • Extraneous variable
      • Control
      • Confounded relationship.

    32. Question 32. What Are The Steps Involved For The Research Design?

      Answer :

      Research design is the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted.
      The function of research design is to provide for the collection of relevant information with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money.
      The preparation of research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves the consideration of the following :

      1. Objectives of the research study.
      2. Method of Data Collection to be adopted
      3. Source of information—Sample Design
      4. Tool for Data collection
      5. Data Analysis-- qualitative and quantitative.

    33. Question 33. What Are The Steps Involved In Research Process?

      Answer :

      The Steps involved in Research Process are:

      1. Formulating the Research Problem
      2. Extensive Literature Review
      3. Developing the objectives
      4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design
      5. Collecting the Data
      6. Analysis of Data
      7. Generalization and Interpretation
      8. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of Results-Formal write ups of conclusions reached.

    34. Question 34. What Are The Types Of Research?

      Answer :

      Research can be classified from three perspectives:

      1. application of research study
      2. objectives in undertaking the research
      3. inquiry mode employed.

    35. Question 35. What Are The Characteristics Of Research?

      Answer :

      CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH:
      Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions.
      But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible, be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, empirical and critical.

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