Do you have experience in software testing? Searching for a job in automation testing tools? Do not panic, we will help you with relevant information at wisdom jobs online portal. Soft ware testing tool is used in day-to-days testing activities. Such tools are used to facilitate regular software development activities, automate and manage the testing activities. Software testing has different goals and objectives such as finding defects which may get created by the programmer while developing the software. To prevent defects in order to make sure of customer’s reliability and their satisfaction in the application. The role of a selenium tester is to find the defects and errors, writing scripts, executing test cases and debugging. So, candidates attend the interview with full confidence by looking into testing tools job interview questions and answers below.
A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working correctly or produces an incorrect result.
Question 2. What Is A Test Case?
Test case is set of input values, execution preconditions, expected results and execution Post conditions, developed for a particular objective or test conditions, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.
Question 3. What Is The Purpose Of Test Plan In Your Project?
Test plan document is prepared by the test lead, it contains the contents like introduction, objectives, test strategy, scope, test items, program modules user procedures, features to be tested features not to tested approach, pass or fail criteria, testing process, test deliverables, testing, tasks, responsibilities, resources, schedule, environmental requirements, risks & contingencies, change management procedures, plan approvals, etc all these things help a test manager understand the testing he should do & what he should follow for testing that particular project.
Question 4. When The Relationships Occur Between Tester And Developer?
Developer is the one who sends the application to the tester by doing all the necessary code in the application and sends the marshal id to the tester. The tester is the one who gives all the input/output and checks whether he is getting required output or not. A developer is the one who works on inside interfacing where as the tester is the one who works on outside interfacing.
Question 5. When Testing Will Starts In A Project?
The testing is not getting started after the coding. After release the build the testers perform the smoke test. Smoke test is the first test which is done by the testing team. This is according to the testing team. But, before the releasing of a build the developers will perform the unit testing.
Question 6. If A Bug Has High Severity Then Usually That Is Treated As High Priority, Then Why Do Priority Given By Test Engineers/project Managers And Severity Given By Testers?
High severity bugs affects the end users .testers tests an application with the users point of view, hence it is given as high severity. High priority is given to the bugs which affects the production. Project managers assign a high priority based on production point of view.
Question 7. What Is The Difference Between Functional Testing And Regression Testing?
Functional testing is a testing process where we test the functionality/behaviour of each functional component of the application. i.e. minimize button, transfer button, links etc.i.e we check what is each component doing in that application.
Regression testing is the testing the behaviour of the application of the unchanged areas when there is a change in the build.i.e we check whether the changed requirement has altered the behaviour of the unchanged areas. The impacted area may be the whole of the application or Some part of the application.
Question 8. Do U Know About Integration Testing, How Does U Integrate Different Modules?
Integration testing means testing an application to verify the data flows between the modules. For example, when you are testing a bank application, in account balance it shows the 100$as the available balance. but in database it shows the 120$. Main thing is “integration done by the developers and integration testing done by the testers.”
Question 9. How You Test Database And Explain The Procedure?
Database Testing is purely done based on the requirements. You may generalize a few features but they won’t be complete. In general we look at:
1. Data Correctness (Defaults).
2. Data Storage/Retrieval.
3. Database Connectivity (across multiple platforms).
4. Database Indexing.
5. Data Integrity.
6. Data Security.
Question 10. What Are The Contents Of Frs?
R-Requirements (Outputs) of the System that is defined.
S-Specification (How, What, When, Where, and Way it behavior’s).
FRS : Function Requirement Specification.
This is a Document which contains the Functional behavior of the system or a feature. This document is also known as EBS External Behaviour Specification - Document. Or EFS External Function Specification.
Question 11. What Is Meant By Priority And Severity?
Priority means “Importance of the defect w.r.t customer requirement.”
Severity means “Seriousness of the defect w.r.t functionality.”
Question 12. Differentiate Between Qa And Qc?
It is process oriented.
It evolves in entire process of software development.
It is product oriented.
Work to examine the quality of product.
Question 13. Explain V-model For Testing?
Typical "V" shows Development Phases on the Left hand side and Testing Phases on the Right hand side.
1. SRS/BRS User Acceptance.
2. Analysis/Design System Testing.
3. HLD Integration Testing.
4. LLD Unit Testing.
Question 14. Define Priority& Severity?
Severity: It is the impact of the bug on the application. Severity level should be set by tester. The Severity levels are: Low, Medium, and high, very high and Urgent. It is set by the tester and it can not be changed.
1. Bug causes system crash or data loss.
2. Bug causes major functionality or other severe problems; product crashes in obscure cases.
3. Bug causes minor functionality problems, may affect "fit and finish".
4. Bug contains types, unclear wording or error messages in low visibility fields.
Priority: How important is it to fix the bug is priority. Priority levels are set by the team lead or test manager and it can be changed as required.
1. Must fix as soon as possible. Bug is blocking further progress in this area.
2. Should fix soon, before product release.
3. Fix if time; some what trivial. May be postponed.
Question 15. What's The Value Of Doing Regression Testing?
Regression testing is initiated after a programmer has attempted to fix a recognized problem or has added source code to a program that may have inadvertently introduced errors. It is a quality control measure to ensure that the newly modified code still complies with its specified requirements and that unmodified code has not been affected by the maintenance activity.
Question 16. Define Regression Testing?
The selective retesting of a software system that has been modified to ensure that any bugs have been fixed and that no other previously working functions have failed as a result of the reparations and that newly added features have not created problems with previous versions of the software. Regression is also referred to as verification testing.
Question 17. What Are Two Benefits Of Manual Testing?
First, since there is no such an automated test tool could replace mankind intelligence, we need to use manual testing to cover the part that automated testing can't cover. Second, before the stable version comes out, manual testing is more effective than automated testing because automated testing may not be completed for system instability, crash for example.
Question 18. What Are Two Benefits Of Automated Testing?
First, with high speed and efficiency, automated testing can release the manpower from the complicated and repeated daily tests to spare consumption and time. Second, with high accuracy, automated testing will never make a mistake just like mankind does under tiredness after long time testing.
Question 19. How Much Testing Is 'enough'?
Testing work is unlimited, especially in large applications. The relatively enough testing is just to make application match product requirements and specifications very well, including functionality, usability, stability, performance and so on.
Question 20. How Do You Know When To Stop Testing?
Its hard to make a decision. Most of the modern applications are very complex and run in an interdependent circumstance, so the complete testing will never be done. However, there are some common factors for me to know when to stop testing, which are deadlines, test cases completed with certain percentage passed, test budget used up, coverage of functionality and requirements reaches a specified point, bug rate falls below the specified level, milestone testing ends and so on.
TRM means Test Responsibility Matrix. This is a vital reference document to ensure all the requirements are covered by at least one test case.It indicates mapping between test factors and development stages.
Test factors like: Ease of use, reliability, portability, authorization, access control, audit trail, ease of operates, maintainable etc.
Development stages like: Requirement gathering, Analysis, design, coding, testing, and maintenance.
Question 22. What Makes A Good Test Engineer?
A good test engineer has a test to break attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers, and an ability to communicate with both.
Question 23. What Is The Software Life Cycle?
The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. It includes aspects such as initial concept, requirements analysis, functional design, internal design, documentation planning, test planning, coding, document preparation, integration, testing, maintenance, updates, retesting, phase-out, and other aspects.
Question 24. What Is Good Code?
Good code is code that works, is bug free, and is readable and maintainable. Some organizations have coding standards that all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about whats best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are also various theories and metrics, such as Mccabe Complexity metrics. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. Peer reviews, buddy checks code analysis tools, etc. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.
Question 25. What Is Software Quality?
Quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable.
Question 26. What Are 5 Common Problems In The Software Development Process?
a). Poor requirements - if requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable, there will be problems.
b). Unrealistic schedule - if too much work is crammed in too little time, problems are inevitable.
c). Inadequate testing - no one will know whether or not the program is any good until the customer complains or systems crash.
d). Futurities - requests to pile on new features after development is underway; extremely common.
e). Miscommunication - if developers dont know whats needed or customers have erroneous expectations, problems are guaranteed.
Question 27. What Is An Inspection?
Inspection is more formalized than a walkthrough, typically with 3-8 people including a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see whats missing, not to fix anything. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the document; most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult, painstaking work, but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality. Employees who are most skilled at inspections are like the eldest brother in the parable in Why is it often hard for management to get serious about quality assurance.
Question 28. What Is A Walkthrough?
A walkthrough is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes. Little or no preparation is usually required.
Question 29. What Is Verification And Validation?
Verification: typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements, and specifications. This can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs, and inspection meetings.
Validation: typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed. The term IV & V refers to Independent Verification and Validation.
Question 30. Why Does Software Have Bugs?
Question 31. What Is Software Quality Assurance?
Software QA involves the entire software development PROCESS - monitoring and improving the process, making sure that any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed, and ensuring that problems are found and dealt with. It is oriented to prevention.
Question 32. What Is Software Testing?
Software Testing can be defines as under:-
• Testing involves operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results (eg, if the user is in interface A of the application while using hardware B, and does C, then D should happen). The controlled conditions should include both normal and abnormal conditions. Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldnt or things dont happen when they should. It is oriented to detection.
• Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they are the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams that include a mix of testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It will depend on what best fits an organizations size and business structure.
Question 33. How Do You Introduce A New Software Qa Process?
It depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk projects, a serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. For medium size organizations with lower risk projects, management and organizational buy-in and a slower, step-by-step process is required. Generally speaking, QA processes should be balanced with productivity, in order to keep any bureaucracy from getting out of hand. For smaller groups or projects, an ad-hoc process is more appropriate. A lot depends on team leads and managers, feedback to developers and good communication is essential among customers, managers, developers, test engineers and testers. Regardless the size of the company, the greatest value for effort is in managing requirement processes, where the goal is requirements that are clear, complete and testable.
Question 34. What Is The Role Of Documentation In Qa?
Documentation plays a critical role in QA. QA practices should be documented, so that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented. Ideally, there should be a system for easily finding and obtaining of documents and determining what document will have a particular piece of information. Use documentation change management, if possible.
Question 35. What Is A Test Plan?
A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach and focus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the why and how of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful, but not so thorough that none outside the test group will be able to read it.
Question 36. What Should Be Done After A Bug Is Found?
When a bug is found, it needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the problem is resolved, fixes should be re-tested. Additionally, determinations should be made regarding requirements, software, hardware, safety impact, etc., for regression testing to check the fixes didn't create other problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place, it should encapsulate these determinations. A variety of commercial, problem-tracking/management software tools are available. These tools, with the detailed input of software test engineers, will give the team complete information so developers can understand the bug, get an idea of its severity, reproduce it and fix it.
Question 37. What Is Extreme Programming And What's It Got To Do With Testing?
Extreme Programming (XP) is a software development approach for small teams on risk-prone projects with unstable requirements. It was created by Kent Beck who described the approach in his book 'Extreme Programming Explained' .Testing ('extreme testing') is a core aspect of Extreme Programming. Programmers are expected to write unit and functional test code first - before the application is developed. Test code is under source control along with the rest of the code. Customers are expected to be an integral part of the project team and to help develope scenarios for acceptance/black box testing. Acceptance tests are preferably automated, and are modified and rerun for each of the frequent development iterations. QA and test personnel are also required to be an integral part of the project team. Detailed requirements documentation is not used, and frequent re-scheduling, re-estimating, and re-prioritizing is expected.
Question 38. How Can World Wide Web Sites Be Tested?
Question 39. How Does A Client/server Environment Affect Testing?
Client/server applications can be quite complex due to the multiple dependencies among clients, data communications, hardware, and servers. Thus testing requirements can be extensive. When time is limited (as it usually is) the focus should be on integration and system testing. Additionally, load/stress/performance testing may be useful in determining client/server application limitations and capabilities. There are commercial tools to assist with such testing.
Question 40. What If An Organization Is Growing So Fast That Fixed Qa Processes Are Impossible
Question 41. How Can Qa Processes Be Implemented Without Stifling Productivity?
By implementing QA processes slowly over time, using consensus to reach agreement on processes, and adjusting and experimenting as an organization grows and matures, productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection, panics and burn-out will decrease, and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort. At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings, and promote training as part of the QA process. However, no one - especially talented technical types - likes rules or bureacracy, and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug-fixing and calming of irate customers.
Question 42. What If The Application Has Functionality That Wasn't In The Requirements?
It may take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected or hidden functionality, and it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. If the functionality isn't necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed, as it may have unknown impacts or dependencies that were not taken into account by the designer or the customer. If not removed, design information will be needed to determine added testing needs or regression testing needs. Management should be made aware of any significant added risks as a result of the unexpected functionality. If the functionality only effects areas such as minor improvements in the user interface, for example, it may not be a significant risk.
Question 43. What Can Be Done If Requirements Are Changing Continuously?
Question 44. What If The Project Isn't Big Enough To Justify Extensive Testing?
Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is still not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the same considerations as described previously in 'What if there isn't enough time for thorough testing apply. The tester might then do ad hoc testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis.
Question 45. How Can It Be Known When To Stop Testing?
This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are so complex, and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Common factors in deciding when to stop are:
Question 46. What If The Software Is So Buggy It Can't Really Be Tested At All?
The best bet in this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process (such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc.) managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.
Question 47. What Are The Levels Of Classified Access?
The levels of classified access are confidential, secret, top secret, and sensitive compartmented information, of which top secret is the highest.
Question 48. What Is Security Clearance?
Security clearance is a process of determining your trustworthiness and reliability before granting you access to national security information.
Question 49. How Do You Create A Test Strategy?
The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test team analyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. The test plan may include test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment.
Inputs for this process:
Outputs for this process:
Question 50. What Is The General Testing Process?
The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes the creation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests.
Question 51. What Is Software Testing Methodology?
One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of:
This methodology can be used and molded to your organization's needs. Rob Davis believes that using this methodology is important in the development and ongoing maintenance of his clients' applications.
Question 52. What Is A Test Schedule?
The test schedule is a schedule that identifies all tasks required for a successful testing effort, a schedule of all test activities and resource requirements.
Question 53. What Is A Test Configuration Manager?
Test Configuration Managers maintain test environments, scripts, software and test data. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Test Configuration Manager.
Question 54. What Is A Technical Analyst?
Technical Analysts perform test assessments and validate system/functional test requirements. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Technical Analyst.
Question 55. What Is A Database Administrator?
Test Build Managers, System Administrators and Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Database Administrator.
Question 56. What Is A System Administrator?
Test Build Managers, System Administrators, Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware.Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a System Administrator.
Question 57. What Is A Test Build Manager?
Test Build Managers deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware.Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Test Build Manager.
Question 58. What Is A Test Engineer?
We, test engineers, are engineers who specialize in testing. We, test engineers, create test cases, procedures, scripts and generate data. We execute test procedures and scripts, analyze standards of measurements, evaluate results of system/integration/regression testing. We also:
Question 59. What Testing Roles Are Standard On Most Testing Projects?
Depending on the organization, the following roles are more or less standard on most testing projects: Testers, Test Engineers, Test/QA Team Lead, Test/QA Manager, System Administrator, Database Administrator, Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager.
Question 60. What Is A Test/qa Team Lead?
The Test/QA Team Lead coordinates the testing activity, communicates testing status to management and manages the test team.
Question 61. What Is Beta Testing?
Beta testing is testing an application when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before the final release. Beta testing is typically performed by end-users or others, not programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.
Question 62. What Is Alpha Testing?
Alpha testing is testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Minor design changes can still be made as a result of alpha testing. Alpha testing is typically performed by a group that is independent of the design team, but still within the company, e.g. in-house software test engineers, or software QA engineers.
Question 63. What Is Acceptance Testing?
Acceptance testing is black box testing that gives the client/customer/project manager the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to the system being released to production.
The acceptance test is the responsibility of the client/customer or project manager, however, it is conducted with the full support of the project team. The test team also works with the client/customer/project manager to develop the acceptance criteria.
Question 64. What Is Comparison Testing?
Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to those of competitors products.
Question 65. What Is Compatibility Testing?
Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, or network
Question 66. What Is Recovery/error Testing?
Recovery/error testing is testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.
Question 67. What Is Security/penetration Testing?
Security/penetration testing is testing how well the system is protected against unauthorized internal or external access, or willful damage.This type of testing usually requires sophisticated testing techniques.
Question 68. What Is Installation Testing?
Installation testing is testing full, partial, upgrade, or install/uninstall processes. The installation test for a release is conducted with the objective of demonstrating production readiness.
This test includes the inventory of configuration items, performed by the application's System Administration, the evaluation of data readiness, and dynamic tests focused on basic system functionality. When necessary, a sanity test is performed, following installation testing.
Question 69. What Is Load Testing?
Load testing is testing an application under heavy loads, such as the testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system response time will degrade or fail.
Question 70. What Is Performance Testing?
Although performance testing is described as a part of system testing, it can be regarded as a distinct level of testing. Performance testing verifies loads, volumes and response times, as defined by requirements.
Question 71. What Is Sanity Testing?
Sanity testing is performed whenever cursory testing is sufficient to prove the application is functioning according to specifications. This level of testing is a subset of regression testing.It normally includes a set of core tests of basic GUI functionality to demonstrate connectivity to the database, application servers, printers, etc.
Question 72. What Is Regression Testing?
The objective of regression testing is to ensure the software remains intact. A baseline set of data and scripts is maintained and executed to verify changes introduced during the release have not "undone" any previous code. Expected results from the baseline are compared to results of the software under test. All discrepancies are highlighted and accounted for, before testing proceeds to the next level.
Question 73. What Is End-to-end Testing?
Similar to system testing, the macro end of the test scale is testing a complete application in a situation that mimics real world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communication, or interacting with other hardware, application, or system.
Question 74. What Is System Testing?
System testing is black box testing, performed by the Test Team, and at the start of the system testing the complete system is configured in a controlled environment.The purpose of system testing is to validate an application's accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed.System testing simulates real life scenarios that occur in a "simulated real life" test environment and test all functions of the system that are required in real life.System testing is deemed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable or acceptable, based on client input.
Question 75. What Is Integration Testing?
Upon completion of unit testing, integration testing begins. Integration testing is black box testing. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure distinct components of the application still work in accordance to customer requirements.Test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. This activity is carried out by the test team.Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input.
Question 76. What Is Parallel/audit Testing?
Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs the operations correctly.
Question 77. What Is Incremental Integration Testing?
Incremental integration testing is continuous testing of an application as new functionality is recommended. This may require that various aspects of an application's functionality are independent enough to work separately, before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers are developed as needed.Incremental testing may be performed by programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.
Question 78. What Is Usability Testing?
Usability testing is testing for 'user-friendliness'. Clearly this is subjective and depends on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions and other techniques can be used. Programmers and developers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.
Question 79. What Is Functional Testing?
Functional testing is black-box type of testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Test engineers should perform functional testing.
Question 80. What Is Unit Testing?
Unit testing is the first level of dynamic testing and is first the responsibility of developers and then that of the test engineers.Unit testing is performed after the expected test results are met or differences are explainable/acceptable.
Question 81. What Is White Box Testing?
White box testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths and conditions.
Question 82. What Is Black Box Testing?
Black box testing is functional testing, not based on any knowledge of internal software design or code. Black box testing are based on requirements and functionality.
Question 83. What Is Quality Assurance?
Quality Assurance ensures all parties concerned with the project adhere to the process and procedures, standards and templates and test readiness reviews.
Question 84. How Is Testing Affected By Object-oriented Designs?
A well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design.
Question 85. Why Do You Recommend That We Test During The Design Phase?
Because testing during the design phase can prevent defects later on. We recommend verifying three things:
Question 86. What If The Organization Is Growing So Fast That Fixed Qa Processes Are Impossible?
This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than:
Question 87. How Can Software Qa Processes Be Implemented Without Stifling Productivity?
Implement QA processes slowly over time. Use consensus to reach agreement on processes and adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures. Productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection. Panics and burnout will decrease and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort.
At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings and promote training as part of the QA process.
However, no one, especially talented technical types, like bureaucracy and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calming of irate customers.
Question 88. What Is Acceptance Testing?
Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.
Question 89. What Is Accessibility Testing?
Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).
Question 90. What Is Ad Hoc Testing?
A testing phase where the tester tries to 'break' the system by randomly trying the system's functionality. Can include negative testing as well.
Question 91. What Is Agile Testing?
Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.
Question 92. What Is Application Binary Interface (abi)?
A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.
Question 93. What Is Application Programming Interface (api)?
A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.
Question 94. What Is Automated Software Quality (asq)?
The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.
Question 95. What Is Automated Testing?
Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.
Question 96. What Is Backus-naur Form?
A metalanguage used to formally describe the syntax of a language.
Question 97. What Is Basic Block?
A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.
Question 98. What Is Basis Path Testing?
A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.
Question 99. What Is Basis Set?
The set of tests derived using basis path testing.
Question 100. What Is Baseline?
The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.
Question 101. What Is Binary Portability Testing?
Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.
Question 102. What Is Bottom Up Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
Question 103. What Is Boundary Testing?
Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).
If software misses some feature or function from what is there in requirement it is called as defect.
Question 105. What Is Boundary Value Analysis?
BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on "corner cases" or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. his means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.
Question 106. What Is Branch Testing?
Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.
Question 107. What Is Breadth Testing?
A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.
Computer Aided Software Testing.
Question 109. What Is Capture/replay Tool?
A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.
The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.
Question 111. What Is Cause Effect Graph?
A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.
Question 112. What Is Code Complete?
Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.
Question 113. What Is Code Coverage?
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.
Question 114. What Is Code Inspection?
A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.
Question 115. What Is Code Walkthrough?
A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer's logic and assumptions.
The generation of source code.
Question 117. What Is Component?
A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available.
Question 118. What Is Component Testing?
Testing of individual software components (Unit Testing).
Question 119. What Is Concurrency Testing?
Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.
Question 120. What Is Conformance Testing?
The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.
Question 121. What Is Context Driven Testing?
The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.
Question 122. What Is Conversion Testing?
Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
Question 123. What Is Cyclomatic Complexity?
A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.
Question 124. What Is Data Dictionary?
A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.
Question 125. What Is Data Flow Diagram?
A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.
Question 126. What Is Data Driven Testing?
Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.
Question 127. What Is Debugging?
The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.
Question 128. What Is Dependency Testing?
Examines an application's requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.
Question 129. What Is Depth Testing?
A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.
Question 130. What Is Dynamic Testing?
Testing software through executing it.
Question 131. What Is Emulator?
A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.
Question 132. What Is Endurance Testing?
Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.
Question 133. What Is Equivalence Class?
A portion of a component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification.
Question 134. What Is Equivalence Partitioning?
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.
Question 135. What Is Exhaustive Testing?
Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.
Question 136. What Is Functional Decomposition?
A technique used during planning, analysis and design creates a functional hierarchy for the software.
Question 137. What Is Functional Specification?
A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.
Question 138. What Is Glass Box Testing?
Glass Box Testing is also known as "White Box Testing" or "Open Box Testing".
It is used to test the external behavior of the Program.This testing is done to test the functinality of the application.
Question 139. What Is Gorilla Testing?
Testing one particular module, functionality heavily.
Question 140. What Is Gray Box Testing?
A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.
Question 141. What Is High Order Tests?
Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.
Question 142. What Is Independent Test Group (itg)?
A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing.
Question 143. What Is Inspection?
A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).
Question 144. What Is Localization Testing?
This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.
Question 145. What Is Loop Testing?
A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.
A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.
Question 147. What Is Monkey Testing?
Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.
Question 148. What Is Negative Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as "test to fail". See also Positive Testing.
Question 149. What Is Path Testing?
Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.
Question 150. What Is Positive Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as "test to pass".
Question 151. What Is Quality Audit?
A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.
Question 152. What Is Quality Circle?
A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.
Question 153. What Is Quality Control?
The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.
Question 154. What Is Quality Management?
That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.
Question 155. What Is Quality Policy?
The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.
Question 156. What Is Quality System?
The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.
Question 157. What Is Race Condition?
A cause of concurrency problems. Multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either to moderate simultaneous access.
Question 158. What Is Ramp Testing?
Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down.
Question 159. What Is Recovery Testing?
Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.
Question 160. What Is Release Candidate?
A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).
Question 161. What Is Scalability Testing?
Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load.
Question 162. What Is Security Testing?
Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.
Question 163. What Is Smoke Testing?
A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.
Question 164. What Is Soak Testing?
Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.
Question 165. What Is Software Requirements Specification?
A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for software
Question 166. What Is Static Analysis?
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program. A tool that carries out static analysis.
Question 167. What Is Static Analyzer?
A tool that carries out static analysis.
Question 168. What Is Static Testing?
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.
Question 169. What Is Storage Testing?
Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.
Question 170. What Is Stress Testing?
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load.
Question 171. What Is Structural Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software.
Question 172. What Is Testability?
The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.
Question 173. What Is Testing?
The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors. The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item . The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.
Question 174. What Is Test Bed?
An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds(s) to be used.
Question 175. What Is Test Case?
Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc. A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. Test Driven Development Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.
Question 176. What Is Test Driver?
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.
Question 177. What Is Test Environment?
The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.
Question 178. What Is Test First Design?
Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.
Question 179. What Is Test Harness?
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Driver.
Question 180. What Is Test Plan?
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.
Question 181. What Is Test Procedure?
A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.
Question 182. What Is Test Script?
Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.
Question 183. What Is Test Specification?
A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.
Question 184. What Is Test Suite?
A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.
Question 185. What Is Test Tools?
Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.
Question 186. What Is Thread Testing?
A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
Question 187. What Is Top Down Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.
Question 188. What Is Total Quality Management?
A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction.
Question 189. What Is Traceability Matrix?
A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.
Question 190. What Is Use Case?
The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.
Question 191. What Is Validation?
The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing.
Question 192. What Are The Major Differences Between Stress Testing,load Testing,volume Testing?
Stress testing means increasing the load ,and checking the performance at each level. Load testing means at a time giving more load by the expectation and checking the performance at that level. Volume testing means first we have to apply initial.
Question 193. What Is Memory Leaks And Buffer Overflows ?
Memory leaks means incomplete deallocation - are bugs that happen very often. Buffer overflow means data sent as input to the server that overflows the boundaries of the input area, thus causing the server to misbehave. Buffer overflows can be used.
Question 194. What Is The Difference Between Quality Assurance And Testing?
Quality assurance involves the entire software development process and testing involves operation of a system or application to evaluate the results under certain conditions. QA is oriented to prevention and Testing is oriented to detection.
Question 195. How Do We Test For Severe Memory Leakages ?
By using Endurance Testing . Endurance Testing means checking for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.
Question 196. How Testing Is Proceeded When Srs Or Any Other Document Is Not Given?
If SRS is not there we can perform Exploratory testing. In Exploratory testing the basic module is executed and depending on its results, the next plan is executed.
Question 197. How To Test The Web Applications?
The basic difference in webtesting is here we have to test for URL's coverage and links coverage. Using WinRunner we can conduct webtesting. But we have to make sure that Webtest option is selected in "Add in Manager". Using WR we cannot test XML objects.
Question 198. What Is 'configuration Management'?
Configuration management is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Revision control, Change Control, and Release Control are important aspects of Configuration Management.
Question 199. Can We Perform The Test Of Single Application At The Same Time Using Different Tools On The Same Machine?
No. The Testing Tools will be in the ambiguity to determine which browser is opened by which tool.
Question 200. How Will You Evaluate The Fields In The Application Under Test Using Automation Tool?
We can use Verification points(rational Robot) to validate the fields .Ex.Using objectdata,objectdata properties VP we can validate fields.
Question 201. How Will You Test The Field That Generates Auto Numbers Of Aut When We Click The Button 'new' In The Application?
We can create a textfile in a certain location, and update the auto generated value each time we run the test and compare the currently generated value with the previous one will be one solution.
Question 202. How To Find That Tools Work Well With Your Existing System?
To find this, select the suite of tests which are most important for your application. First run them with automated tool. Next subject the same tests to careful manual testing. If the results are coinciding you can say your testing tool has been performing.
Question 203. What Testing Activities You May Want To Automate In A Project?
Testing tools can be used for :
Question 204. What Are The Main Attributes Of Test Automation?
Maintainability, Reliability, Flexibility, Efficiency, Portability, Robustness, and Usability - these are the main attributes in test automation.
Question 205. Describe Some Problem That You Had With Automating Testing Tool
1. The inability of winrunner to identify the third party control like infragistics controls.
2. The change of the location of the table object will cause object not found error.
3. The inability of the winrunner to execute the script against multiple langauges.
Question 206. What Skills Needed To Be A Good Test Automator?
1.Good Logic for programming.
2. Analytical skills.
3.Pessimestic in Nature.
Question 207. What Are The Limitations Of Automating Software Testing?
Hard-to-create environments like “out of memory”, “invalid input/reply”, and “corrupt registry entries” make applications behave poorly and existing automated tools can’t force these condition - they simply test your application in “normal” environment.
Question 208. Can The Activities Of Test Case Design Be Automated?
As I know it, test case design is about formulating the steps to be carried out to verify something about the application under test. And this cannot be automated. However, I agree that the process of putting the test results into the excel sheet.
Question 209. What Tools Are Available For Support Of Testing During Software Development Life Cycle?
Testing tools for regression and load/stress testing for regression testing like, QTP, load runner, rational robot, winrunner, silk, test complete, Astra are available in the market. For defect tracking BugZilla, Test Runner are available.
Question 210. What Are Principles Of Good Testing Scripts For Automation?
1. Proper code guiding standards.
2. Standard format for defining functions, exception handler etc.
3. Comments for functions.
4. Proper errorhandling mechanisms.
5. The appropriate synchronization techniques.
Question 211. What Types Of Scripting Techniques For Test Automation Do You Know?
5 types of scripting techniques:
Question 212. Describe Common Problems Of Test Automation.
The common problems are:
1. Maintenance of the old script when there is a feature change or enhancement.
2. The change in technology of the application will affect the old scripts.
Question 213. What Testing Activities You May Want To Automate?
Automate all the high priority test cases which needs to be executed as a part of regression testing for each build cycle.
Question 214. How You Will Describe Testing Activities?
Testing activities start from the elaboration phase. The various testing activities are preparing the test plan, Preparing test cases, Execute the test case, Log the bug, validate the bug & take appropriate action for the bug, Automate the test cases.
Question 215. What Could Go Wrong With Test Automation?
1. The choice of automation tool for certain technologies.
2. Wrong set of test automated.
Question 216. What Are Main Benefits Of Test Automation?
Question 217. How You Will Evaluate The Tool For Test Automation?
We need to concentrate on the features of the tools and how this could be beneficial for our project. The additional new features and the enhancements of the features will also help.
Question 218. How Will You Choose A Tool For Test Automation?
choosing of a tool defends on many things .
1. Application to be tested.
2. Test environment.
3. Scope and limitation of the tool.
4. Feature of the tool.
5. Cost of the tool.
6. Whether the tool is compatible with your application which means tool should be able to interact with your application.
7. Ease of use.
Question 219. Does Automation Replace Manual Testing?
There can be some functionality which cannot be tested in an automated tool so we may have to do it manually. therefore manual testing can never be replaced. (We can write the scripts for negative testing also but it is hectic task).When we talk about real environment we do negative testing manually.
Question 220. How Do You Plan Test Automation?
1. Prepare the automation Test plan
2. Identify the scenario
3. Record the scenario
4. Enhance the scripts by inserting check points and Conditional Loops
5. Incorporated Error Handler
6. Debug the script
7. Fix the issue
8. Rerun the script and report the result.
Question 221. What Are The Table Contents In Testplans And Test Cases?
Test Plan is a document which is prepared with the details of the testing priority. A test Plan generally includes:
Question 222. What Are The Tables In Testplans And Testcases?
Test plan is a document that contains the scope, approach, test design and test strategies. It includes the following:
1. Test case identifier.
3. Features to be tested.
4. Features not to be tested.
5. Test strategy.
6. Test Approach.
7. Test Deliverables.
9 . Staffing and Training.
10. Risk and Contingencies.
While A test case is a noted/documented set of steps/activities that are carried out or executed on the software in order to confirm its functionality/behavior to certain set of inputs.
Question 223. What Is Rad Testing Model?
Rapid Application Development (RAD) is an incremental software development process model that emphasizes a very short development cycle [typically 60-90 days]. The RAD model, is a very high-speed adaptation of the waterfall model, where the result of each cycle a fully functional system.
Question 224. What Is Rapid Application Development(rad) Data Modeling?
The information flow defined as part of the business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to support the business. The characteristics (called attributes) of each object are identified and the relationships between these objects are defined.
Question 225. What Is Rapid Application Development (rad) Process Modeling?
The data objects defined in the data-modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. Processing descriptions are created for adding, modifying, deleting, or retrieving a data object.
Question 226. What Is Rapid Application Development (rad) Application Generation?
RAD assumes the use of the RAD fourth generation techniques and tools like VB, VC++, Delphi etc rather than creating software using conventional third generation programming languages. The RAD works to reuse existing program components (when possible) or create reusable components (when necessary). In all cases, automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the software.
Question 227. What Is Rapid Application Development (rad) Testing And Turnover?
Since the RAD process emphasizes reuse, many of the program components have already been tested. This minimizes the testing and development time.
Question 228. Explain Disadvantages Of Rapid Application Development (rad)
Question 229. What S Spiral Model?
In the Spiral Model, a cyclical and prototyping view of software development is shown. Test are explicitly mentioned (risk analysis, validation of requirements and of the development) and the test phase is divided into stages. The test activities include module, integration and acceptance tests. However, in this model the testing also follows the coding. The exception to this is that the test plan should be constructed after the design of the system. The spiral model also identifies no activities associated with the removal of defects.
Question 230. Explain Top-down And Bottom-up Design?
Top-down and bottom-up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching. In many cases top-down is used as a synonym of analysis or decomposition, and bottom-up of synthesis.
Question 231. Explain Waterfall Model?
The waterfall model is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design (validation), Construction, Testing and Maintenance.
Question 232. What Is V Model?
Many of the process models currently used can be more generally connected by the ‘V’ model where the ‘V’ describes the graphical arrangement of the individual phases. The ‘V’ is also a synonym for Verification and Validation.
By the ordering of activities in time sequence and with abstraction levels the connection between development and test activities becomes clear. Oppositely laying activities complement one another (i.e.) server as a base for test activities. For example, the system test is carried out on the basis of the results specification phase.
Question 233. What Is W Model?
From the testing point of view, all of the models are deficient in various ways:
Question 234. Explain Butterfly Model Of Test Development?
Butterflies are composed of three pieces — two wings and a body. Each part represents a piece of software testing, as under.
Question 235. What Is The Waterfall Model?
The waterfall model derives its name due to the cascading effect from one phase to the other. In this model each phase well defined starting and ending point, with identifiable deliveries to the next phase.
Question 236. Explain The Waterfall Model Phases?
The waterfall model phases are followed in order:
1. Requirements specification.
3. Construction (AKA implementation or coding).
5. Testing and debugging (AKA Validation).
Question 237. Explain Waterfall Model Supporting Arguments?
Time spent early in the software production cycle can lead to greater economy at later stages. It has been shown that a bug found in the early stages (such as requirements specification or design) is cheaper in terms of money, effort and time, to fix than the same bug found later on in the process. ([McConnell 1996], p. 72, estimates that a requirements defect that is left undetected until construction or maintenance will cost 50 to 200 times as much to fix as it would have cost to fix at requirements time.) To take an extreme example, if a program design turns out to be impossible to implement, it is easier to fix the design at the design stage than to realize months later, when program components are being integrated, that all the work done so far has to be scrapped because of a broken design.
Question 238. Explain Some Advantages Of Waterfall Model?
Question 239. Explain Disadvantages Of Waterfall Model?
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