Want to become an environmental scientist? Interested to study about our nature? Then jobs on environmental science are perfect for you. We will guide you how to succeed in your interview. Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science and zoology. There are also many jobs about environmental science in wisdom jobs such as environmental scientist, associate professor on environment, assistant professor ,environmental science teacher and medical coding trainer etc. there are many develop and testing centers on environmental science. Jobs on environmental science are the current most trending occupation in the scenario. Let’s have a look at our environmental science job interview questions and answers page to crack in your interview.
If we do not want to go into the intricacies of the term, then we can define environment as everything that surrounds us. Whatever we see around us is confined to the living component of the human eco-system. With time, the concept has undergone modifications. Today, environment means a single system of the interacting living and non-living natural components of the earth.
But the earth is not the only planet of the solar family, which again belongs to our home Galaxy — the Milky Way. There are about 100 billion such galaxies floating in the vast universe, each containing about 100 billion stars!! In this universe, not a single event can be said to be isolated, and no object is independent of the rest.
Since everything is interrelated with every other thing, logic demands-that the entire universe is our environment. But, for practical reasons, environmental study deals only with the system of interaction between non-living and living components of the globe.
In 1977, the first international conference on Environmental Education was held in Tiflis (capital city of Georgia Republic). The programme was organised by UNESCO and UNEP, and here it was noted that “the environment includes a complex of natural, built and social components in the life of humanity”.
The principal characteristics of the environment have been listed below:
Thus, the environment is a perfectly functioning system:
The three basic components of environment are:
Again, the abiotic components of the environment consist of:
The biotic component of environment includes all kinds of organic life, ranging from microorganisms to plants and animals, including man.
Energy is the third component of environment, which is indispensable for the generation and sustenance of all forms of organic life. The sun is the main source of energy in the environment. Geo-thermal energy is yet another type of energy. Since photosynthesis is essential for the existence of organic life, we find that life is confined to only those regions where solar energy can be captured for photosynthesis.
This forms a narrow belt of life that extends from about 180-210 m below sea level to almost 6 km (snow-line in mountain ranges). This is known as the Biosphere, which can be said to be a thin film (1/1000th) when we consider the earth’s radius (6,370 kms).
The natural resources of the earth — which include air, water, soil, flora and fauna represent our environment. For the benefit of the present and future generations, these priceless resources should be safeguarded, by means of careful planning and management.
At the end of the 20th century, we are realising the acute environmental crisis as an impact of indiscriminate and ignorant utilisation of natural resources. The rise in population and demand for space and basic amenities has led to overutilization of the available resources.
In order to create an awareness among the masses about the importance of proper utilization and conservation of the resources, environmental education has become a must.
Environmental education is the process in order to create awareness and sensitivity to the total environment by developing appropriate attitudes and acquiring adequate knowledge and skills with the purpose of solving environmental problems.
The following may be suggested as the objectives of any environmental education programme:
Environmental factors are, naturally, variable. For instance, air temperature varies on a diurnal and annual basis. In order to measure sustained temperature changes, we take average values for days, months, seasons, years, and even longer periods.
Then, the similar averages are compared when it is found that the mean temperature for one year is greater than that in the previous year; we know that a change has occurred.
It must be kept in mind that average values should not be treated as some sort of norm. Average values for all the principle atmospheric variables over a period of thirty years are used to defined “climatic norms”. This term is often misleading, since it tries to establish that the climatic norms are somehow permanent.
However, current thinking suggests that the climate is ever changing. The climatic norms of one generation may be another generation’s climatic extremes. Thus, we may conclude from this argument that — change is the norm, constancy the exception.
In this context, scientists have found that environmental variables display three basic types of changes:
The ecosphere is the first source of environmental change, since the interactions between the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere and toposphere produce environmental cycles, trends and steady states. Directional changes or trends occur when a threshold within the ecosphere is crossed, just as what happened when the Antarctic ice expanded during the Late Eocene atmospheric cooling. The ice-‘sheet has lasted ever since through, recently (December 2000) an area of 20,000 sq. miles (51,000 sq. kms) has been satellite- observed as melted! This has caused grave concern to the environmentalists.
The sun is the most important source of power of the ecosphere. Steady state changes about periodic and quasi-periodic fluctuations are promoted by solar influences. A number of ecospheric processes are finely adjusted to solar cycles. Also some ecospheric processes are attuned to various astronomical pulses, such as orbital changes in the sun and the planets, the solar system’s passage around our galaxy, Milky Way, and the Milk Way’s interactions with the neighbouring galaxies. The bombardment by asteroids and comets may also instigate and encourage biospheric trends.
Cycles, steady states and trends in the ecosphere are also produced by geological forces, and the ultimate seat of change lies in the core and mantle process. The core and mantle processes act through the agency of the lithosphere. The mechanism of plate-tectonics influences sea-level change, volcanic and mountain building activities, continental drift and true polar wander. Geological changes have caused long-term bio-diversity trends, since it is largely dependent on relative fragmentation of land-masses.
The principal constituents of the earth can be considered in four broad groups:
From the very beginning, man has been curious to know how the earth and the universe came into being. Due to this common interest, all the early civilizations developed their own explanations and versions of the origin of the earth and nature of the universe.
COSMOLOGY is the field of study, which deals with the evolution of ideas regarding the origin of the earth, its relation to the solar system, and how the solar system is related’ to the universe.
Man had to wait until the invention of the telescope, when he could peer into space and explore the universe. However, this could be done at a limited scale. After two or three hundred years, more powerful telescopes were developed. In the meantime, there had been new developments in the fields of mathematics and physics. These enable man to explore space more adequately.
There are two rival theories explaining the origin of the universe:
The super dense or “BIG BANG” theory:
This theory was put forward by Ryle. He suggested that a vast explosion of super dense matter created the universe. This explosion produced the galaxies of stars which are scattered throughout the space. The stars are also flying away from each other, at the amazing speed of 600 million km/hour.
The steady state or continuous creation theory:
This theory was elaborated by Hoyle, Bondi and Gold. They rejected the Big Bang Theory. Instead, they put forward the idea that matter is being continuously created. New galaxies are born and compensate for the ones which are receding beyond man’s ken.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2):
During the past century, large scale fossil fuel burning has increased the concentration of CO, in the air. Ultimately, this has resulted in the warming of the lower atmosphere.
This triatomic form of oxygen is the most efficient absorber of the scorching ultra-violet radiation from the sun. The ozonosphere protects us from the ill-effects of excessive quantities of UV rays. The composition of the atmosphere varies with height, latitude and time.
The light gases, especially helium and hydrogen, are found in abundance in the upper atmosphere. Water vapour constitutes almost 4% of the atmosphere by volume, only near the surface. Above 10-12 km, it is nearly absent. Ozone is found mainly between 15-35 km, in the Troposphere.
Ozone and water vapour are also the two gases whose concentrations in the atmosphere vary with latitude and season. Ozone content is low over the Equator (0°). It is high over latitudes north of 50°N, that too mostly during the spring season.
L. De Vere Burton has defined ecology as:
“The study of relationships between living organisms and the environments in which they live is the science of Ecology.”
According to Eugene P. Odum:
“Ecology is the study of the relation of organisms or groups of organisms to their environment, or the science of the interrelations between living organisms and their environment.” Therefore, it may be concluded that ecology involves the totality of all the reciprocal interactions that take place between living organisms and their environment.
There are several subdivisions of ecology, but only a few important ones have been discussed here.
Scientists have broadly classified ecology into:
The following are a few specialized branches of ecology:
Habitat ecology is the ecological study of various habitats on earth and their effects on the organisms living there.
According to the type of habitat under consideration, ecology is further classified into fresh water ecology, marine ecology, grassland ecology, desert ecology etc.
Is the study of the local distribution of animals in different habitats, the recognition and composition of community units, and succession.
Also known as population ecology, studies man’s relationship with the environment, particularly the impact of human behaviour on the environment and the implications of these effects for man.
Which is the application of ecological concepts to human needs and requirements, such as forest conservation, animal husbandry, agriculture, horticulture, wild-life management etc.
Which is a relatively modern branch of ecology, deals with the analysis and understanding of the function and structure of ecosystems, mainly by using applied mathematics.
In 1971, Odum defined ecosystem as any unit that included within it all the organisms (i.e. the community) of a given area interacting with the physical environment, so that a flow of energy results in a clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity and material cycles.
In this context, the following terms need to be classified:
With the spread of civilization and the growing demands for forest produce, the world’s forest cover is steadily diminishing by burning, clearing and felling trees for fuel, or to make space for settlements, agriculture and industry.
Finally, we have realised that forests should not only be preserved for maintaining timber supplies, but also for checking soil erosion, flood, safeguarding water supplies, and for providing recreational facilities.
We have made a list of ways in which the problems can be overcome:
Forests felled for timber supply must essentially be replanted with seedling trees. The new trees may not always be the same as those removed. Many areas which were not forested previously may also be planted in order to check soil erosion.
Selective Cutting Practices:
With the aim of better regeneration and survival, the cutting practices should be selective. The weak or diseased species, or the mature species, that are occupying space uselessly, must be removed. By this method, sufficient trees will remain to prevent soil erosion and the species can regenerate at the same time.
This is an alternative to selective cutting. By this method, all the trees are removed, irrespective of age or type. Initially, this may seem to be wasteful. But, if the area is replanted, erosion can be checked. This method is also cheaper and easier.
Protection of Forests:
Re-use of Waste Paper:
By recycling newsprint and other inferior paper products, timber consumption can be reduced.
Domestic Water Need:
Industrial Water Need:
The industrial demand for water in a town depends on the number, nature and size of industries.
Institutional Water Need:
Under this category comes the quantity of water needed by various public buildings and institutions. Therefore, since the water is used for public utility purposes, it is sometime known as public demand. Watering of parks and gardens, cleaning streets, roadside fountains and other beautification measures’, maintaining public swimming pools and other entertainment centers etc. come under this kind of demand,
Water is stored for fighting sudden fire-outbreaks. The tanks are filled from nearby water bodies by water tankers wherever possible and then used when needed. High-rise buildings (above 25 m height) must be provided with their own water storage, other than the water used for domestic purposes,
Unaccounted Use of Water:
A huge quantity of water is lost due to thefts, negligence, ignorance etc. Some loss also occurs due to technical problems, such as leakages at the joints and valves. Proper vigilance, inspection and timely maintenance can reduce unaccounted loss of water to a large extent.
Waste water is defined as a combination of domestic and industrial waste water, with or without rain runoff. Domestic waste water is sewage only and does not include rain runoff. Therefore, waste water is a complex mixture of natural inorganic and organic materials mixed with man-made substances.
It contains everything discharged to the sewer, including materials washed from roads, railways and roofs, and, of course, where the sewer is damaged, ground water will also gain entry. In the broadest sense, waste water can be split into domestic (sanitary) waste water, also known as sewage, industrial waste water and, finally, municipal waste water which is a mixture of both.
The principal objectives of waste water treatment are:
Water pollution may be defined as any physical change in the natural water by the addition of any foreign material that adversely affects human and aquatic life, directly or indirectly, in the short run or in the long run.
Water is considered to be polluted when it is contaminated with:
The pollution of water alters the physical properties of water, such as colour, odour, turbidity and temperature. The presence of dissolved or suspended chemical pollutants can make the water acidic or saline.
The principal reasons behind water pollution are the problems like population increase, agricultural and industrial waste generation, sewerage disposal, radioactive waste generation, etc.
The sources of water pollution can be of two types:
Natural Sources –
Soil erosion, volcanic eruption, landslides, storms, earthquakes.
volcanic eruption and dead and decaying organic matter.
(iii) Organic Matter:
Decaying bodies of plant and animals in swamps or deep ponds.
(iv) Rain Water:
Acid rain, especially in industrialized countries.
Man-made or Anthropogenic Sources –
Animal waste and human sewage
(ii) Organic Wastes:
Human and Domestic Sewage, Animal and Plant Waste, Wastes from agro-based industries.
(iii) Inorganic chemicals and minerals:
Agricultural runoff, domestic sewage, animal wastes, wastes from petrochemical, fertilizer and similar other industries, mining activities.
Cooling water from industrial and power generating installation
J. Tiffen, an industrial psychologist, has defined it as —
“Noise is a sound which is disagreeable for the individual and which disturbs the normal way of an individual.”
According to the Encyclopedia Americana:
“Noise by definition is unwanted sound. What is pleasant to some ears may be extremely unpleasant to others depending on a number of psychological factor. The sweetest music, if it disturbs a person, who is trying to concentrate or to sleep, is a noise to him, just as the sound of a pneumatic riveting hammer is noise to nearly everyone. In other words any sound may be noise if circumstances cause it to be disturbing.”
We can conclude by saying that any sound which is disagreeable to the individual and which hampers the normal way of the individual is noise.
Smell causes distress and discomfort, while odour, under different conditions, can be pleasing. The osmogenic molecules (smell) enter the nasal cavity through the nostrils. They excite the osmoceptors. The specific impulse travels along the myelinated nerve fibers to the receptor centres in the brain in the form of specific electric discharges.
The message is. processed and delivered to the evaluation centres in the brain. Here olfactory information is compared with stored experience (the memory), and finally the interpretation of message is relayed back along other nerve paths.
Stale air is characteristic of areas that are populated or overpopulated — whether residential, commercial or industrial. Stale air is deprived of its full oxygen value.
Instead, it carries a considerable surplus of carbon dioxide:
Solvent vapours are extremely volatile and give rise to photochemical smog.
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