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XHTML stands for Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It is a combination of XML and HTML capabilities. XHTML can be viewed as intersection of HTML and XML in many aspects.
Since XML and HTML are derived from SGML they are similar, but have the following differences:
1. XML is case-sensitive.
2. XML must have quotes (single or double) around attributes.
3. Most interpreters of HTML are very forgiving about missing end tags – XML parses are not.
4. Comments start with <– and end with –>. Inside a comment, "–" may not appear. Although this is fine in html, it confuses xml parsers.
The following are the reasons for why XTML is better than HTML:
XHTML validation is the process of validating XHTML document with w3c’s validator
XHTML is a fairly close copy of HTML 4.01.
Extensibility : Under HTML, the addition of a new group of elements requires alteration of the entire DTD. XML greatly eases the integration of new element collections as it is a subset of SGML itself and specifies it's own DTD.
Portability : By the year 2002 as much as 75% of Internet access could be carried out on non-PC platforms such as palm computers, televisions, fridges, automobiles, telephones, etc. In most cases these devices will not have the computing power of a desktop computer, and will not be designed to accommodate ill-formed HTML as do current browsers.
Currently, the Netscape browser helps greatly for testing web pages by displaying blank or broken pages when it comes across sloppy coding. IE is the most forgiving browser and will show almost any page no matter the extent of coding errors. While HTML itself isn't completely lacking in extensibility or portability but the evolution of it has been extremely slow compared to the pace of Internet development. This fuels the problems encountered trying to make your pages work on a wide range of browsers and platforms. XHTML will help to remedy those problems.
Yes, In XHTML we can insert only certain tags inside other tags. Example:
<ol> Some my favorite flowers are:
and my most favorite flower is:
<li>red rose</li> </ol>
In the above example we insert the paragraph between
<li> tag.It's wrong. In case of XHTML our example looks like that, becomes <p>
Some my favorite flowers are:</p> <ol>
In XHTML tags may not be overlapped.
Example: <em> emphasized text and <b>bold </em>text</b> We can use above example in XHTML like that, <em>emphasized text </em> is <b>bold text</b>
Using example I will show you in XHTML every attribute must have a value.
Example in HTML:
<ol compact> <input type="radio" name="title" value="decline" checked>decline</input>
Below, I write a same example in XHTML. <ol compact="compact" > <input type="radio" name="title" value="decline" checked="checked">decline</input> In this we assign value compact, checked to element compact and checked.
Rather than manually creating WML markup, XSLT will enable XHTML documents to be automatically converted to WML.
AJAX requests should use an HTTP GET request when retrieving data where the data will not change for a given request URL. An HTTP POST should be used when state is updated on the server. This is in line with HTTP idempotency recommendations and is highly recommended for a consistent web application architecture.
If we want to convert HTML pages into XHTML than you have to insert some lines at the starting of document. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
Some main advantage of XHTML are given below:
1.In XHTML we can use mixed namespaces.
2.work on XHTML is much simple than HTML.
3.When your document is not well formed than it will immediately informed to you due to an error from your UA in XHTML.
As XHTML is an XML application, you will benefit from developments in the XML world. For example XML tools such as editors, converters, browsers, etc. can be used with XHTML resources. In addition there are developments to the XML family of protocols and formats which will provide additional functionality for XHTML.
"Hello World" Web page code looks like this:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
<html xml:lang="en" lang="en" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<p>My first Web page.</p>
This is often caused by invalid HTML syntax. Specifically, it is often caused by loose content within the table (i.e., content that is not inside a TD or TH element). There is no standard way to handle loose content within a table. Some browsers display all loose content before or after the table. When the loose content contains only multiple line breaks or empty paragraphs, then these browsers will display all this empty space before or after the table itself.
The solution is to fix the HTML syntax errors. All content within a table must be within a TD or TH element.
No. Most programs that help you write HTML code already know most tags, and create them when you press a button. But you should understand what a tag is, and how it works. That way you can correct errors in your page more easily.
No. A form must have exactly one action. However, the server-side (e.g., CGI) program that processes your form submissions can perform any number of tasks (e.g., updating a database, sending email, logging a transaction) in response to a single form submission.
The basic syntax for a form is: <FORM ACTION="[URL]">…</FORM>
When the form is submitted, the form data is sent to the URL specified in the ACTION attribute. This URL should refer to a server-side (e.g., CGI) program that will process the form data. The form itself should contain
According to HTML standards, each HTML document begins with a DOCTYPE declaration that specifies which version of HTML the document uses. Originally, the DOCTYPE declaration was used only by SGML-based tools like HTML validators, which needed to determine which version of HTML a document used (or claimed to use). Today, many browsers use the document's DOCTYPE declaration to determine whether to use a stricter, more standards-oriented layout mode, or to use a "quirks" layout mode that attempts to emulate older, buggy browsers.
Everyone has a different preference for which tool works best for them. Keep in mind that typically the less HTML the tool requires you to know, the worse the output of the HTML. In other words, you can always do it better by hand if you take the time to learn a little HTML.
In HTML, a tag tells the browser what to do. When you write an HTML page, you enter tags for many reasons — to change the appearance of text, to show a graphic, or to make a link to another page.
I don’t usually use WYSIWYG. The only occasions when I do use Dreamweaver are when I want to draw something to see what it looks like, and then I’ll usually either take that design and hand-modify it or build it all over again from scratch in code. I have actually written my own desktop HTML IDE for Windows (it’s called Less Than Slash) with the intention of deploying it for use in web development training. If has built-in reference features, and will autocomplete code by parsing the DTD you specify in the file. That is to say, the program doesn’t know anything about HTML until after it parses the HTML DTD you specified. This should give you some idea of my skill level with HTML.
We use <table> tag to create the table in HTML. After creating an table we use <tr> tag to create the rows.And use <td> to create data cell on each row.These cell can store images,text,tables,list etc.
Basic syntax to create an Table are given below:
<td>row 1, cell 1</td>
<td>row 1, cell 2</td>
<td>row 1, cell 3</td>
<td>row 2, cell 1</td>
<td>row 2, cell 2</td>
<td>row 2, cell 3</td>
I have display the list of some tags that we used in HTML table.These tags are:
Using Submit Button we can sends the form to the server and Action Attribute is specified that which file we send.
<form name="input" action="submit_form.php"
method="get"><input type="hidden" name="phpMyAdmin" value="f43d4e0b88acea2d2a393515f6bf38f2" /><input type="hidden" name="phpMyAdmin" value="70ac9566533a2665b6597346aab7f985" />
<input type="text" name="Form">
<input type="submit" value="Submit">
When we click the sumbit button web page than the submit_form is send to the server.
NO! XHTML still lacks semantics. Ideally your resources should be stored in an appropriate XML format. XSLT can then be used to convert the resources to XHTML (for Web browsers), WML (for mobile phones), etc. XHTML is a useful intermediate stage.
The eGroups XHTML-L Web site provides links to XHTML tools, including conversion tools and editors. A couple of free tools are available (HTML-Kit, 1st Page 2000). Mozquito Factory appears to be the first licensed package on the market. You can expect the usual suspects (Microsoft, Dreamweaver, etc) to bring out new versions of their products with XHTML support.
W3C has written a utility program called Tidy which can be used to convert HTML pages to XHTML. Tidy can be used in batch mode to bulk-convert documents. Tidy is an open source program, which has been incorporated into an number of authoring tools, most notably HTML-Kit.
DOCTYPE is stands for Document Type Declaration.In an HTML every HTML document is started with DOCTYPE declaration.It may be differ for different versions of HTML.DOCTYPE is used only bySGML tools like as HTML validator.
Example of Document Type Declaration in HTML 4 are,
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
Many times we have require index.htm / document because it is a standard for the host-server to look for the document and deploy it.Default document to be displayed in the web.
We use SPAN by using <SPAN> tag in HTML.Syntax:<SPAN>…………</SPAN>Used to highlightthe any color text, for adding colored text, for adding background image to text. SPAN not a cause of line break. It delimits text and using them we can use style to the 'elemental' region without any break in Text.
In this page we use span.
An element attribute is a predefined property about this element. Element attributes allows you to provide additional information to the element. Most XHTML elements have some common attributes. But many XHTML elements have their own specific attributes.
Here are some good examples of element attributes:
Yes, XHTML element names are case sensitive. All element names must be written in lower case letters. Here are some valid and invalid XHTML element names:
Note to HTML document authors: HTML element names are not case sensitive. But XHTML element names are case sensitive. If you are converting existing HTML documents to XHTML documents, you will get a lots of syntax errors about upper case letters used in HTML tags.
Most of XHML elements allow you to specify contents. But there are some XHTML elements that do not allow any contents. If an XHTML element does allow element content, you need to enter the content between the opening tag and the closing tag.
Here are some good examples of XHTML elements with contents:
XHTML was developed by W3C HTML Working Group with Steven Pemberton as the group chair.
There are 77 tags defined in XHTML 1.0:
a abbr acronym address area b base bdo big blockquote body br button caption cite code col colgroup dd del dfn div dl dt em fieldset form h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 head hr html i img input ins kbd label legend li link map meta noscript object ol optgroup option p param pre q samp script select small span strong style sub sup table tbody td textarea tfoot th thead title tr tt ul var.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a technical specification that allows XHTML document authors to attach formatting style sheets to XHTML documents. When XHTML documents are viewed as Web pages through Web browsers, the attached style sheets will alter the default style sheets embedded in browsers.
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages, like HTML, for documents. SGML is a descendant of IBM’s Generalized Markup Language (GML), developed in the 1960s by Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher and Raymond Lorie (whose surname initials also happen to be GML). XHTML is not directly related to SGML. But it is indirectly to SGML through HTML.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is an Internet communication protocol, that allows a viewer’s computer talking to a publisher’s computer to fetch XHTML documents. The viewer’s computer issues a HTTP request message to the publisher computer first. Then the publisher returns a HTTP response message back to the viewer’s computer with the requested XHTML document included in the message.
The Web is a publisher technology based on the Internet to allow publishers to publish hyper linked documents to be viewed by Internet users. XHTML is the next generation language that used to compose those hyper linked documents. In another word, XHTML is the technical language that controls Web page contents and hyper links.
An application may wish to support only a subset of XHTML. For example a mobile phone, an Internet TV or even a Web-aware cooker may only require a subset of XHTML. Also modularity makes it easier to deploy new developments.
The basic tool you need to write XHTML documents is any text editor, like notepad on Windows system, or vi on Unix system.If you are looking for some advanced tools to help you writing XHTML documents, you can select any one from the following three categories of XHTML editors:
XHTML is not very different from HTML 4.01, so bringing your code up to the 4.01 standard is a good start. In addition, you should start NOW to write your HTML code in lowercase letters.
The Most Important Differences:
Serving XHTML with a MIME type of text/html is wrong.
The whole point of XHTML is that it’s XML so that you can benefit from namespaces and the like.
In particular, ‘text/html’ is NOT suitable for XHTML Family document types that adds elements and attributes from foreign namespaces, such as XHTML+MathML [XHTML+MathML].
1. XHTML 1.0 served as application/xhtml+xml to conforming UAs, and text/html to Internet Explorer
2. HTML 4.01, served as text/html
XHTML 1.1 is not an option because it mandates a MIME type of application/xhtml+xml which is incompatible with Internet Explorer
HTML+XHTML Related Tutorials
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HTML+XHTML Related Interview Questions
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