4. Input, Process and Output Model Consumer Behaviour

Input Process output model of Consumer Behaviour

This is a simple model of consumer behavior, in which the input for the customer is the firm’s marketing effort (the product, price, promotion and place) and the social environment. The social environment consists of the family, reference groups, culture, social class, etc. which influences the decision-making process. Both these factors together constitute the input in the mind of the consumer.

Need recognition
When one is aware of a want, tension is created and one chooses a product to satisfy his needs. There is also a possibility that a person may be aware of a product before its need is recognized. This is indicated by the arrows going both ways from the need to the product and vice-versa.

Product awareness
Product awareness can be had from advertisement or exposure to different types of media or by the social circle. The awareness and the need leads to the building of interest. In some cases, the interest may also breakdown and, the decision process also stops or may be postponed for the time being.

Evaluation may consist of getting more information about the product and comparing and contrasting it with other products. This can be done theoretically or by taking a trial. Once the evaluation is completed, the consumer’s interest may either build up and he has intentions to buy, or he may lose interest and the decision process may again stop or be postponed.

Once there is intention to purchase the product, the consumer goes ahead and acts or purchases the product. Once the product is purchased, it is used to fulfil the need and, the more the product is used, the more the consumer becomes aware of the positive and negative points of the product.

Post-purchase behavior
If, after the purchase and use of the product the customer is satisfied, he is happy and goes in for repeat purchases or recommends the same to his friends and acquaintances. If, however,the customer is dissatisfied, he discontinues further purchase of the product and builds a negative attitude towards it, which may be harmful to the company.
The post-purchase behavior is very important for the marketer and the company because it leads to proper feedback for improvement and maintaining the quality and features desired by the product. If the customer is very happy with the purchase, he forms a good impression about the product and the company.

Buyer's-black box model
The above figure shows three stages in terms of stimuli buyer’s black box and buyer’ response.The consumer gets the input from the marketing effort of the firm (4 Ps) and the other stimuli. This input is processed in the mind (Black Box), which constitutes the characteristics of the buyer and the process of decision-making. Once the buyer has decided to buy then, he responds in terms of his choice of product, brand, dealer, timing and amount.

The post-purchase behavior of being satisfied or dissatisfied is also important, and is shown in the decision-making process.

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Consumer Behaviour Topics