XHTML Version 1.1 - XHTML

What is XHTML Version 1.1?

The W3C has helped circulate the net content-development network from the times of malformed, non-preferred mark-up into the nicely-shaped, valid world of XML. In XHTML 1.0, this circulate became moderated via the goal of imparting smooth migration of present HTML four (or in advance) primarily based content to XHTML and XML.

The W3C has removed assist for deprecated elements and attributes from the XHTML own family. those elements and attributes had in large part presentation-oriented functionality that is better handled through style sheets or client-specific default behavior.

Now the W3C's HTML working institution has defined an initial file kind based totally upon modules which are XHTML 1.1. This document kind is designed to be portable to a broad collection of client devices, and relevant to most of the people of net content.

Document Conformance

The XHTML 1.1 offers a definition of strictly conforming XHTML files which have to meet all the following criteria −

  • The document should conform to the restrictions expressed in XHTML 1.1 file type Definition.
  • The basis detail of the report have to be .
  • The root element of the record need to designate the XHTML namespace the use of the xmlns attributes.
  • The root detail might also include a schema area attribute as described within the XML Schema.

There need to be a DOCTYPE statement within the record prior to the basic element. If it's far present, the public identifier included in the DOCTYPE declaration has to refer the DTD observed in XHTML 1.1 file type Definition.

Right here is an instance of an XHTML 1.1 file –

Note − In this case, the XML announcement is covered. An XML declaration including the one above isn't required in all XML files. XHTML document authors are strongly encouraged to use XML declarations in all their files. This sort of declaration is required whilst the person encoding of the record is other than the default UTF-8 or UTF-16.

XHTML 1.1 Modules

The XHTML 1.1 document type is made from the subsequent XHTML modules.

structure Module − The structure Module defines the major structural elements for XHTML. those elements successfully act as the idea for the content model of many XHTML family document types. The factors and attributes included in this module are − frame, head, html, and name.

text Module − This module defines all of the fundamental textual content container factors, attributes, and their content version − abbr, acronym, cope with, blockquote, br, cite, code, dfn, div, em, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, kbd, p, pre, q, samp, span, robust, and var.

Hypertext Module − The Hypertext Module gives the element that is used to outline hypertext hyperlinks to different assets. This module supports element a.

listing Module − As its call suggests, the list Module gives list-oriented factors. particularly, the listing Module helps the subsequent factors and attributes − dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, and li.

Item Module − The item Module gives factors for widespread-purpose object inclusion. specifically, the item Module supports − item and param.

Presentation Module − This module defines factors, attributes, and a minimal content version for easy presentation-related markup − b, massive, hr, i, small, sub, sup, and tt.

Edit Module − This module defines elements and attributes for use in modifying-related markup − del and ins.

Bidirectional textual content Module − The Bi-directional text module defines an detail that can be used to claim the bi-directional guidelines for the element's content − bdo.

paperwork Module − It presents all of the shape features found in HTML four.0. in particular, it supports − button, fieldset, shape, enter, label, legend, choose, optgroup, choice, and textarea.

Desk Module − It helps the subsequent factors, attributes, and content material version − caption, col, colgroup, table, tbody, td, tfoot, th, thead, and tr.

Photo Module − It presents fundamental image embedding and may be utilized in a few implementations of patron aspect picture maps independently. It helps the detail − img.

patron-side photograph Map Module − It affords factors for customer facet photo maps − place and map.

Server-aspect image Map Module − It provides aid for image-choice and transmission of choice coordinates. The Server-side picture Map Module supports − attribute ismap on img.

Intrinsic activities Module − It helps all the occasions discussed in XHTML occasions.

Meta statistics Module − The Meta records Module defines an element that describes records within the declarative part of a report. It consists of element meta.

Scripting Module − It defines the factors used to contain information bearing on executable scripts or the shortage of assist for executable scripts. factors and attributes blanketed on this module are − noscript and script.

fashion Sheet Module − It defines an detail to be used when declaring internal fashion sheets. The detail and attribute described through this module is − fashion.

fashion characteristic Module (Deprecated) − It defines the style characteristic.

link Module − It defines an element that may be used to define hyperlinks to outside resources. It helps link element.

Base Module − It defines an detail that can be used to define a base URI against which relative URIs in the record are resolved. The detail and characteristic protected on this module is − base.

Ruby Annotation Module − XHTML additionally uses the Ruby Annotation module as described in RUBY and helps − ruby, rbc, rtc, rb, rt, and rp.

Changes from XHTML 1.0 Strict

This section describes the differences between XHTML 1.1 and XHTML 1.0 Strict. XHTML 1.1 represents a departure from both HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0.

  • The maximum great is the removal of functions that have been deprecated.
  • The changes may be summarized as follows −
  • On each detail, the lang characteristic has been eliminated in want of the xml:lang characteristic.
  • On the <a> and <map> elements, the name attribute has been removed in favor of the id attribute.
  • The ruby collection of factors has been delivered.

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