The Kirkpatrick model (1998) of training evaluation has dominated training evaluation discussion since it was first published forty years ago (Kirkpatrick 1959a,1959b, 1960a, 1960b). It suggests that training should be evaluated at four"levels": 1—participant reactions, 2—learning, 3—on-the-job behaviors, and 4—results from behavior change. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) has embraced this framework in its learning outcomes report (Bassi and Ahlstrand 2000). As part of its benchmarking service, participants provided data on standardized measures of Level 1 and Level 3 outcomes.
Despite its popularity with practitioners, in recent years the four-level taxonomy has come under increasingly intense criticism (Alliger, Tannenbaum, Bennett,Traver, and Shotland 1997; Alliger and Janak, 1989; Holton 1996; Swanson andHolton 1999). The chief criticisms are:
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Training And Development Tutorial
The Need For Training And Development Departments
Function And Role Of T&d Managers
The T&d Department And The Organizational Structure
Identifying Training Needs
Responding To Individual Training Needs
Training Isn't Always The Solution
How Do People Learn?
Enhancing Transfer Of Learning
Training And Development Budgets
Measuring Training And Development
Assessing The Results Of The Training Programs
Selecting And Retaining The T&d Staff
Does Employee Development Pay Off?
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