MaryBroad (Broad and Newstrom 1992; Broad in press) has been a leader in translating transfer research into actionable strategies. She recognized that most of the transfer research was not action-oriented.She and her colleagues have devoted themselves to developing strategies to improve learning transfer systems (Broad and Newstrom 1992). Most recently, she developed a transfer system improvement process that guides practitioners through critical steps to improve transfer. (Broad in press). Figure below shows the complete process. They make the case that learning professionals must become learning transfer managers to ensure that the emphasis on transfer is shared and implemented by all stakeholders. Learning transfer (LT) managers must help all stakeholders learn the six factors supporting learning transfer.LT managers must include, as part of their management responsibilities, the education of stakeholders (managers, performers, coworkers, others) about the factors affecting performance and the oversight and tracking of those stakeholders' transfer strategies (Broad, M.L., in press). Broad suggests that learning transfer managers are responsible for managing the steps in the process shown in Figure below.
A model for managing the organizational learning/transfer system.
Although the process often cannot be applied exactly as shown, it provides a nice framework to plan learning transfer with stakeholders and a checklist to see that "messier"processes cover all the necessary steps. Each of the steps is described below(from Broad in press).
1.DEVELOP/MAINTAIN EXPERTISE As LT MANAGER
TheLT manager needs three main areas of expertise:
2A.IDENTIFY PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
Stakeholder scan help identify which factors affecting performance may be present or missing, including learning. Strategically important learning requirements (and other interventions) are then discussed with potential clients (step 2b).
2B.MEET WITH CLIENT
The LT manager meets with a client who has a real stake in the strategic learning requirement. When learning is required, the LT manager emphasizes to the client that cohesive support by all major stakeholders is essential to ensure learning, transfer of new skills to job performance, and desired organizational results. This discussion should include:
The LT manager and client identify major stakeholders concerned about strategic goals and performance required to achieve them, including:
4A.MEET WITH CLIENT AND STAKEHOLDERS
The client and LT manager meet with all major stakeholders to discuss the importance of transfer in accomplishing strategic goals, including:
These discussions provide information for step 4b.
4B.ANALYZE ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT FOR TRANSFER BARRIERS AND SUPPORT
The LT manager and client explore the organizational context for the desired performance. This includes all of the sixteen factors discussed above. The questions presented are ideal for leading these discussions. All analytical information is shared among LT manager, client, and stakeholders to gain agreement on the intervention and necessary transfer support. (This information is also useful in step 4a.)
5A.DEVELOP LEARNING DESIGN
Based on the previous steps, the LT manager develops the learning design:
5B.IDENTIFY SUPPORT FOR LEARNERS
The LT manager and learner representatives identify useful learning transfer strategies before, during, and after learning activities. Strategies include:
5C.IDENTIFY SPECIFIC STAKEHOLDER TRANSFER STRATEGIES
The LT manager helps each stakeholder identify strategies to support learning transfer before, during, and after learning activities. These are integrated with the learning design (5a) and other support for learners (5b), and give learners resources, opportunities for application, incentives, and rewards. The strategies chosen:
Broadand Newstrom (1992) is an excellent compilation of a wide variety of very specific and practical strategies that can be used before, during, and after learning with trainers, trainees, and managers in this step.
6A.IMPLEMENT LEARNING PROJECT
The LT manager begins delivery of learning activities and implements the evaluation process.
6B.IMPLEMENT/MANAGE TRANSFER SYSTEM
The LT manager and stakeholders implement all planned transfer strategies (before,during, and after learning activities) and monitor their effectiveness.
The final report, with evaluation data, becomes an effective "marketing tool" to demonstrate the effectiveness of collaborative stakeholder strategies to support transfer.
Completion of steps 6a and 6b can be considered the end of the learning transfer project. However, in an actual complex organizational system, improved performance in one area usually leads to requests for improved performance— and transfer support—in other areas.
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