System Analysis And Design Overview - System Analysis and Design

What is System Analysis and Design Overview?

systems improvement is systematic process which includes stages such as planning, analysis, design, deployment, and maintenance. here, in this tutorial, we will primarily focus on −

  • systems analysis
  • systems design

systems analysis

It is a procedure of collecting and interpreting data, identifying the issues, and decomposition of a system into its components.

System analysis is conducted for the cause of studying a system or its elements in order to identify its objectives. it is a trouble solving technique that improves the system and ensures that all the components of the system work effectively to accomplish their purpose.

Analysis specifies what the system should do.

systems design

It is a method of planning a new business system or replacing an present system by defining its components or modules to satisfy the specific requirements. before planning, you need to understand the antique system thoroughly and decide how computers can best be used in order to operate efficiently.

System design focuses on how to perform the objective of the system.

System analysis and design (sad) mainly focuses on −

  • Systems
  • Processes
  • Technology

what is a system?

The word system is derived from Greek word Systema, which means an prepared relationship between any set of components to achieve some common reason or objective.

A system is “an orderly grouping of interdependent components connected together according to a plan to obtain a specific purpose.”

Constraints of a system

A system must have three simple constraints −

  • A device have to have some structure and behavior that is designed to obtain a predefined objective.
  • Interconnectivity and interdependence should exist among the system components.
  • The objectives of the organization have a higher priority than the objectives of its subsystems.
  • For example, traffic management system, payroll system, automatic library system, human resources information system.

properties of a system

A system has the following properties −


Organization implies structure and order. it is the arrangement of additives that allows to achieve predetermined objectives.


It is defined by the manner in which the additives operate with each other.

For example, in an organization, purchasing department have to interact with production department and payroll with personnel department.


Interdependence means how the components of a system depend on each other. for proper functioning, the components are coordinated and linked together consistent with a specified plan. The output of one subsystem is the required by other subsystem as input.


Integration is concerned with how a system components are connected together. It method that the components of the system work collectively within the device even if every component performs a unique feature.

central objective

The objective of system have to be central. it can be real or stated. It is not uncommon for an organization to state an objective and function to achieve another.

The users must know the primary objective of a computer application early in the analysis for a successful design and conversion.

elements of a system

The following diagram suggests the elements of a system
System Analysis and Design - Overview

Outputs and Inputs

  • The main aim of a device is to produce an output that is useful for its user.
  • Inputs are the information that enters into the system for processing.
  • Output is the outcome of processing.


The processor is the element of a system that involves the actual transformation of input into output.

  • It is the operational element of a system. Processors may modify the input either totally or partially, depending at the output specification.
  • As the output specifications change, so does the processing. In some cases, input is also modified to enable the processor for handling the transformation.


  • The control element courses the system.
  • It is the decision–making subsystem that controls the sample of activities governing input, processing, and output.
  • The behavior of a computer system is managed by the operating system and software. in order to keep system in balance, what and how much input is needed is determined by Output specifications.


  • Feedback presents the control in a dynamic system.
  • Positive feedback is routine in nature that encourages the performance of the system.
  • Negative comments is informational in nature that provides the controller with information for movement.


  • The environment is the “supersystem” within which an organization operates.
  • It is the source of external elements that strike at the system.
  • It determines how a system have to function. for example, vendors and competitors of organization’s environment, may also provide constraints that affect the actual performance of the business.

Boundaries and Interface

  • A system should be described through its boundaries. boundaries are the limits that identify its components, processes, and interrelationship when it interfaces with any other system.
  • Every system has boundaries that determine its sphere of impact and control.
  • The knowledge of the boundaries of a given system is critical in determining the nature of its interface with other systems for successful design.

Types of systems

The systems can be divided into the following types −

Physical or Abstract Systems

Physical structures are tangible entities. we can touch and feel them.

  • Physical system may be static or dynamic in nature. for example, desks and chairs are the physical parts of computer center which are static. A programmed computer is a dynamic device in which applications, data, and applications can change according to the user's needs.
  • Abstract systems are non-physical entities or conceptual that may be formulas, representation or model of a real system.

Open or Closed Systems

  • An open system need to interact with its environment. It gets inputs from and provides outputs to the outside of the system. for example, an information system which must adapt to the changing environmental conditions.
  • A closed system does not interact with its environment. it's miles isolated from environmental influences. a completely closed system is rare in reality.

Adaptive and Non Adaptive system

  • Adaptive device responds to the alternate in the environment in a way to improve their performance and to survive. for example, humans, animals.
  • Non Adaptive system is the system which does not respond to the environment. for example, machines.

Permanent or Temporary System

  • Permanent system persists for long time. for example, commercial enterprise policies.
  • Temporary system is made for specified time and after that they are demolished. for example, A DJ system is installation for a program and it is dissembled after the program.

Natural and manufactured system

  • Natural systems are created by the nature. for example, solar system, seasonal system.
  • Manufactured system is the man-made system. for example, Rockets, dams, trains.

Deterministic or Probabilistic system

  • Deterministic system operates in a predictable way and the interaction between system components is known with certainty. for example, two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen makes water.
  • Probabilistic system indicates uncertain behavior. the exact output is not known. for example, weather forecasting, mail delivery.

Social, Human-machine, machine system

  • Social system is made of people. for example, social clubs, societies.
  • In Human-machine system, both human and machines are involved to perform a particular task. for example, computer programming.
  • Machine system is where human interference is neglected. all of the tasks are done through the system. for example, an autonomous robot.

Man–Made information systems

  • It is an interconnected set of data resources to control data for specific organization, below Direct management control (DMC).
  • This system includes hardware, software, communique, records, and application for producing data according to the want of an organization.

Man-Made information systems are divided into three types −

  • Formal information system − it is based on the flow of facts in the form of memos, instructions, and so on., from top level to lower levels of management.
  • Informal statistics system − this is employee based totally system which solves the daily work related problems.
  • Computer based system − This device is directly depending on the computer for managing business programs. for example, automatic library system, railway reservation system, banking system, etc.

Systems models

Schematic models

  • A schematic model is a 2-D chart that shows system elements and their linkages.
  • Different arrows are used to show data flow, material flow, and data feedback.

Flow system models

  • A flow system model shows the orderly flow of the material, power, and data that hold the system together.
  • Program evaluation and review technique (PERT), for example, is used to abstract a real world system in model form.

Static system models

  • They constitute one pair of relationships such as activity–time or cost–quantity.
  • The Gantt chart, for example, gives a static picture of an activity-time relationship.

Dynamic system models

  • Business organizations are dynamic systems. A dynamic model approximates the type of organization or application that analysts cope with.
  • It shows an ongoing, continuously changing status of the system. It consists of −
  • Inputs that enter the machine
  • The processor through which transformation takes place
  • The program(s) required for processing
  • The output(s) that result from processing.

Categories of information

There are three categories of information related to managerial levels and the decision managers make.

System Analysis and Design - Overview

Strategic information

  • This information is required by way of daypmost control for long range planning rules for following few years. for example, trends in revenues, financial investment, and human resources, and population growth.
  • This form of information is finished with the useful resource of decision support system (DSS).

Managerial information

  • This type of information is required by using center management for short and intermediate range planning that's in terms of months. for example, sales analysis, coins flow projection, and annual financial statements.
  • It is achieved with the resource of management information systems (MIS).

Operational information

  • This type of information is needed by low management for daily and short term planning day enforce operational activities. for example, preserving employee attendance data, overdue purchase orders, and current stocks availableday.
  • It is achieved with the aid of data Processing systems (DPS).

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