Do you like to switch your career? Here's our recommendation on the important things to need to prepare for the job interview to achieve your career goals in an easy way. Six Sigma is the set of methods to improve the overall business processes such that the errors are minimized. It has five phases, Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. The techniques differs as per the size of the organizations. Candidate should have good command on all activities to be done. There is huge demand for jobs related to Six Sigma anywhere. One can check the availability of the job across cities including Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Pune and Hyderabad. Follow Wisdomjobs page for Six Sigma job interview questions and answers page to get through your job interview successfully.
The measure of variation in a process which is statistical in nature is known as Sigma. The Six Sigma process is derived if the quality is 3.4 Defect per Million Opportunities (DPMO). Six Sigma is a problem solving methodology. This methodology is applicable to a process for eliminating the root cause of defects and the costs that are associated with the same.
It is a methodology and set of tools for the measurement of process quality. It demonstrates that the business process is well controlled. Six Sigma level can be achieved when the accuracy of your process gets only 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
Here’s the list of acceptable number of defects per million to correspond to each Sigma level:
Sigma level Defects per million opportunities
The following are the kids of variations used in SIX Sigma:
Mean: The variations are measured and compared using the averaging techniques of mathematics. The measures are taken for a specific application and the mean is calculated
Median: The variations are measured and compared using the mid point in a given range of data. It is measured by finding the highest and lowest value then dividing it by two. The lowest value is added to the same
Range: The values of a specific data range. It is the difference between highest and lowest values in a specific data range.
Mode: Mode is the most occurred values in a given data range.
Six Sigma aims to deliver quality products to the customers. It also intends to reduce output variation by predicting process results. Processes here would be measure, analyze, improve and control, Variation here means how much has the output deviated from the actual. Six sigma means as the process deviation increases the sigma number is decreased. Having the sigma number as 6 would mean that there will be no items that don’t meet with the specifications.
Reduction variations is the strategy of Six Sigma approach. Standard deviation which is a square root of variance is the measure of variations. The approach is to reduce the sigma value and the better process experience.
However , there are two other types of variations, namely, Operator origin variations ...measured as Reproducibility and Guage variations ...repeatability is another element of Guage variations coming from operator origin.Measurement system analysis deals withis types of variations.
There is another aspect of looking at the multiple sample variations by way of ANOVA
Six Sigma implementation team has five key players:
Master black belt
Executive leaders: The decision of to six sigma is taken by the main team – Executive Leaders. They promote the six sigma throughout the enterprise and ensure the commitment of the enterprise in six sigma. The executive leaders are mainly CEO, or some of the board of directors. The six sigma initiative is funded by Executive leaders. The executive leaders should be confident and determine that six sigma will improve organization process and it is succeeded.
Champions: Champions are normally the senior manager of the enterprise. He promotes six sigma mainly among the users of the business. He acts as a coach, mentor, selects projects, decides the objectives, allocates the resources and removes hurdles from black belt players. The champions fight for removing black belt hurdles.
Master Black-Belt: This role highly demands the technical capability in six sigma. All organizations are not started with six sigma and will not have the same. Normally outsiders are recruited for it. The key role of Master Black-belt is train, mentor and guide. He supports the executive leaders in candidate’s selection; teach the fundamentals and train resources and right project for resources.
Black-Belt: Black-belt always leads a selected project team for show casing six sigma. Their responsibilities include finding out the variations and looking after minimizing the variations. Black belt normally selects the projects, train resources, and they are the real implementers of the project. They are the core resources to six sigma as the actual implementation of six sigma is done by black belt, in the enterprise.
Green Belt: The green belt resources supports black belt in the functionality areas. They are part time resources who work mainly on projects for six sigma implementation. The six sigma methodologies for solving problems are applied by green belt and help for defining the basic six sigma implementation of the enterprise. The too support black belt in implementing six sigma in the enterprise.
Attaining Six Sigma is a team effort. An organization who wants to attain Six Sigma needs a lot of restructuring and change in attitude. It includes building up the following roles to take up the required responsibilities:
In order to express the amount of business functionality of an information system, a function point is used as a unit of measurement.
There is International Function Point Users Group in US based organization of users of the software metric Function Point Analysis Every function point is a unit of measure used by IFPUG functional size measurement method.
The IFPUG FSM is one of the currently recognized standards of ISO for functionally sizing software.
The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:
Define the problem, the voice of the customer, and the project goals, specifically. Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data. Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause-and-effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are, and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation.
Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis using techniques such as design of experiments, poka yoke or mistake proofing, and standard work to create a new, future state process. Set up pilot runs to establish process capability.
Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. Implement control systems such as statistical process control, production boards, visual workplaces, and continuously monitor the process.
Within the individual phases of a DMAIC or DMADV project, Six Sigma utilizes many established quality-management tools that are also used outside Six Sigma.
In 1986 Six Sigma was developed by Motorola.
Six Sigma has a greek symbol which is ”sigma”. It is the standard deviation utilized to measure the variation in the process.
They are DMAIC and DMADV
DMAIC is an abbreviation for define, measure, analyze, improve and control.
DMADV is an abbreviation for define, measure, analyze, develop, verify.
Six Sigma jobs are advertised under many titles,not always as obvious as Six Sigma Black Belt,Six Sigma Consultant or Six Sigma Analyst.Other possible titles include things like Functional Project Lead Six Sigma Program Manager,Lead Analyst/Project Manager,Director of Operational Excellence, Business Process Manager or Senior Projects Manager.Whatever the exact title, the organization is looking for someone with the skills of a Six Sigma Black Belt.
You need to be able to demonstrate a good understanding of processes and quality methodologies and a willingness to take an initiative and lead change. Another crucial skill is the ability to link strategy to execution.
Six Sigma quality levels are 99.9996% accurate and also they have only 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
The following are the key roles of Six Sigma efforts:
Sponsor: Business executive leading the organization.
Champion: Responsible for Six Sigma strategy, deployment, and vision.
Process Owner: Owner of the process, product, or service being improved responsible for long-term sustainable gains.
Master Black Belts: Coach black belts expert in all statistical tools.
Black Belts: Work on 3 to 5 $250,000-per-year projects; create $1 million per year in value.
Green Belts: Work with black belt on projects.
The following explains the MAIC :
Measure: Problem assessment by gathering right information.
Analyze: Identify root cause of problem by using statistical tools.
Improve: Solve the problem (not the symptom).
Control: Put a plan in place to make a check that problems stay fixed and sustain the gains.
Lean takes the waste out of an area six sigma resolves the issue
More stress is involved in performance testing, on system and checks whether the system performance is same as the less stress condition. Where as in load testing the stress is kept beyond the limit specified by the client.Performance testing is the super set of load testing. Load testing involves the testing process which determines how well the system is capable for handling concurrent users or the load. Where as performance testing includes the load as well as the stress testing.
The following steps explains the Load testing process :
Plan the test. A clear test plan is required for ensuring the test scenarios to accomplish the objectives of load testing Creation of Vusers. Vusers scripts are created that contains the tasks performed by each and every Vuser and all Vuser tasks collectively as a whole.
Creation of scenario. Describing the events that occurred in the testing. This process includes the list machines, scripts, and Vusers which run during the scenario. The Load Runner controller is used for creation of automatic scenarios.
Following information mentions the acceptable number of defects per million to correspond to each Sigma level:
Sigma level Defects per million opportunities 1 690,000
Standard deviation quantifies the variation most accurately indicating the degree of variation in a set of measurement or a process by measuring the average spread of data around the mean. It provides accurate information
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