Managed Metadata Share Point 2010

If only a few files are stored in a folder, it’s probably relatively easy for you to find what you need—and this may be the case for a few thousand files in a hierarchical file system as well. But if you’re talking about tens of thousands of files, or even millions of files, with many more being added each day, then storing a file in the wrong place in the hierarchy can make information practically impossible to find. The answer to such a problem is metadata, which literally means data about data. SharePoint 2010’s new Managed Metadata service is the core of many of the ECM improvements. By attaching metadata to content, you can use the metadata to organize, index, and navigate to content automatically.For now, it’s enough to know that metadata is an essential part of content management.

Configuring the Managed Metadata Service
The Managed Metadata Service can be configured as follows:

  1. From Central Administration, select Manage Service applications in the Application Management section.
  2. Select the Managed Metadata Service, and from the Operations section of the Service Applications ribbon, select Manage. This will open the Term Store Management Tool. Notice that the Taxonomy Term Store pane on the left side of the page, and shown in the following illustration, displays the terms and term stores that have been defined for the selected Managed Metadata Service application. The root node—Managed Metadata Service—represents the service application.
  3. Configuring the Managed Metadata Service

    The lowest level of metadata definition is the term, which is a tag for all intents and purposes. Terms can be hierarchically organized, as illustrated. Moving up from the term is the term set, which groups terms into a logical set. One common use for a term set is to provide a list of possible options; as shown in the illustration, the Page Types term set lists possible terms for page types. Term sets come in two types: open, in which users can add terms, and closed, in which all terms are predefined by a user with appropriate permissions. By using these different types, you can create taxonomies or folksonomies.

  4. Since we’ll make use of the demonstration terms shown in the illustration, we’ll add them to the term store. Right-click the Managed Metadata Service node and select New Group from the context menu. Enter Chapter 6as the name for the group.
  5. Right-click Chapter 6, and then select New Term Set. Name the Term Set Page Types.
  6. Right-click Page Types, and then add new terms as shown in the illustration. Notice how new blank terms are added automatically while you’re inserting terms, making it easier to enter several terms at the same time.

Managed Metadata Field
Taxonomies and folksonomies are covered in detail in Chapter ; for now, however, you should know that a taxonomy is a well-defined categorization scheme that can usually be changed only by administrative users, whereas a folksonomy is a loosely defined scheme that can be changed by users of the system. Let’s look at how this data can be captured as part of our content creation process. The primary user interface for capturing metadata published using the Managed Metadata Service is the Managed Metadata field. By default, all content types that are derived from the Page content type include a Managed Keywords field that makes use of the Managed Metadata field type.

NOTE :The Managed Keywords field is actually provisioned by a hidden taxonomy feature, which should be enabled by default. However, at the time of writing, on SharePoint 2010 Beta 2, in certain circumstances the feature isn’t enabled and therefore the column isn’t available. To remedy this problem, you can manually enable the feature using PowerShell.
To illustrate the use of the Managed Metadata field, we’ll create a new blank site.

  1. Using SharePoint Designer, create a new blank web site
  2. From the Site tab of the ribbon, select Document Library | Document Library. Name the new document library MyTaggedDocs.
  3. In the List Settings tab of the ribbon, click Administration Web Page from the Manage section. (At the time of writing, Managed Metadata columns can’t be added using SharePoint Designer.)
  4. In the Columns section of the Document Library Settings page, select Create Column.
  5. Add a new column named Document Type of type Managed Metadata.
  6. Scroll down the page to the use a managed term set option. Using the navigator, select the Page Types term set, as shown. Notice that you can select any term within the term set hierarchy as the starting point for the field. Only the subset of terms that are found below the selected term will be available for selection.

Configuring the Managed Metadata Service

In addition to being able to define metadata manually for content, you can configure default metadata based on the location to which content is saved. For example, a document library may contain folders for a number of customers. When a document is stored in a particular folder, it may be desirable to attach a customer reference by default.

  1. Navigate to the MyTaggedDocs document library using the browser. From the Documents tab, select New Document to add a new document to the library.
  2. Enter some sample text in the document, and then in the Document Properties panel add the title MyTechnicalSpec.
  3. In Document type column, type Tech. Notice that as you type a list of suggestions appear. In this case, the only suggestion is Technical Specification, which is selected by default if you press return.
  4. Try to enter an invalid value, such as foo; notice that the invalid term is highlighted as an error.
  5. Click the icon to the right of the Document Type text box. From the Select: Document Type dialog, select the Technical Specification term, as shown. Click OK to use the selected term.
  6. Configuring the Managed Metadata Service

  7. Click the Save icon in the upper-left corner of the screen to save the new document to our MyTaggedDocs document library. Save the document as MyTechnicalSpec. docx, and then close Word after the document has been saved. To illustrate how default terms can be applied when documents are created, we’ll add a few folders to our MyTaggedDocs library and then specify default terms for each folder.
  1. From the Documents tab, select New Folder. Create a new folder and name it Pricing Docs.
  2. Repeat the process to create another new folder named Product Descriptions, as shown:
  3. Product Descriptions

  4. From the Library tab on the ribbon, select Library Settings, and then select Column Default Value Settings from the General Settings section.
  5. Select the Pricing Docs node from the Location To Configure tree on the left side. Click the Document Type column, and then select the Use The Default Value option.
  6. In the Default Value text box, type Pricing. Again, notice how suggestions are automatically generated as you type. Select Pricing Information, and then click OK to store the default.
  7. Repeat this process to set a default value for Product Description.Now navigate to the Pricing Docs folder in the MyTaggedDocs library. Add a new document. This time, save the document without setting the Document Type value and then close Word. Notice that the default value that we specified earlier has been applied. CAUTION Default metadata is applied by attaching an event receiver to the appropriate document library. Be careful not to remove the system-specified event receiver by accident when working with custom receivers.

Metadata Navigation
Filing hierarchies are great if you’re dealing with only a few items, but they’re not so good as the number of items increases. Unfortunately, the hierarchy has to get more and more complicated to enable things to be found. For example, you could start off with a folder named Customers, with subfolders for each customer. In each customer subfolder, you could store all correspondence for a given customer. This works well if you need to store only a few documents, but what happens over time when the aggregate volume of correspondence increases? The typical answer is to create date folders within the customer folder. But what if the volume within a particular time period is still too high to make it easy to find what youneed? You could again subdivide the time period or maybe create subfolders for each type of correspondence. possible to find content. As they get more complicated, they become more targeted to a particular search approach. In our example, what would happen if we wanted to retrieve all the sales invoices created on a particular day for all customers? With the current folder structure, this would be possible, but not exactly the most efficient content management mechanism. At this point, the answer may be to create a new hierarchy that is easier to understand, which is no mean feat by any measure, and is still targeted to a particular search approach. The answer to this dilemma is to create many virtual hierarchies, each targeted to a particular search context. By using the Metadata Navigation functionality in SharePoint 2010, creating virtual hierarchies is a straightforward affair. Before Metadata Navigation can be used, it must be enabled for a site.

  1. From the Site Actions menu, select Site Settings.
  2. In the Site Settings page, select Site Features and then click the Activate button for the Metadata Navigation and Filtering feature, as shown:
  3. Metadata Navigation and Filtering feature

  4. Navigate to the MyTaggedDocs library that we created earlier. From the Library tab, select Library Settings. Notice that the General Settings section now contains two additional options: Metadata Navigation Settings and Per-location View Settings.
  5. Click the Metadata Navigation Settings link, and then from the list of Available Hierarchy Fields, add the Document Type field to the list of Selected Hierarchy Fields.
  6. From the Available Key Filter Fields list, add the Created By field to the Selected Key Filter Fields list.
  7. Click OK to apply the changes, and then navigate to the MyTaggedDocs library.

By configuring Metadata Navigation for our document library, a hierarchy browser is now visible on the left side of the page. From the hierarchy, we can select from the list of folders or the Managed Metadata terms that we specified for the Document type field. Also, by adding Created By as a Filter Field, we can enter a username to show only the documents that were created by a particular user. Combining these two techniques makes it easier to find data using a combination of virtual hierarchies and filtering.

Content Organizer
Another use for metadata is to organize content automatically. One of the problems of a hierarchical filing system is that documents must be placed in the correct place for the system to work. By defining rules that determine where a document should be saved, the Content Organizer feature in SharePoint 2010 allows users to save all content to a drop-off location; SharePoint will automatically route it to the correct place. To configure the Content Organizer feature, take the following steps:

  1. From the Site Actions menu, select Site Settings and then click the Manage Site Features link. Activate the Content Organizer feature, as shown:
  2. Using the Navigate Up button that appears next to the Site Actions menu, navigate back to the Site Settings page. The Site Administration section now shows two additional options: Content Organizer Settings and Content Organizer Rules. Also, a Drop-Off Library has been automatically created within the site. The first option, Content Organizer Settings, allows you to configure the settings for the Content Organizer feature. For this simple demonstration, the default settings will be sufficient.
  3. Click the Content Organizer Rules link to display the list of configured rules. One thing that may not be immediately apparent is that a Content Organizer Rule is implemented as a Content Type and the collection of rules are stored in a custom list defined at the site level named RoutingRules. To add a new rule, click the Add New Item icon.
  4. Name the new ruleMove Product Specs. In the Submission’s Content Type section, choose Document as the content type, as shown. When it comes to defining rules, bear in mind that each rule is bound to a specific content type. In the preceding samples, we added a column to our MyTaggedDocs library but didn’t create a specific content type; as a result, we can’t use our custom Managed Metadata field to create a rule. Instead, we’ve selected the Document content type, allowing the rule to execute against all content that inherits from the Document content type.
  5. Content organizer rules:New rule

  6. In the Conditions section, select the Managed Keywords property; then, in the Value box, enter Product. Select the Product Description term when it is suggested.
  7. Set the Target Location to the Product Descriptions folder in the MyTaggedDocs document library that we created earlier. Click OK to save the new rule.

To see our rule in action, navigate to the automatically created Drop-Off Library, and then create a new document by selecting New Document from the Document tab on theribbon. Enter some sample text and a Title for the document, and then, in the Managed Keywords text box, enter the Product Description term. Save the document to the library. Notice that as each document is being saved, the status messages in Word indicate that the Content Organizer is processing. Once the save process has completed, the final location of the document will be shown in the Location text box at the upper-right corner of the Document Information panel:

Managed Metadata

Large Libraries
In SharePoint 2007, the recommended maximum number of items in a single folder was 2000, and while the recommended maximum number of documents in a single library was 5 million, achieving this limit could really be done only by having multiple nested folders of around 2000 documents each. With SharePoint 2010, some practical limitations still exist regarding what can be done in lists and libraries, but these limits have been increased significantly. For example, the maximum number of items that can be shown in a single view is now 5000 instead of 2000, and the maximum number of documents in a library has doubled to 10 million.Furthermore, with thoughtful use of metadata, your focus on creating a perfect document hierarchy isn’t such a critical issue to the design of a SharePoint solution. Achieving a document library with many millions of items is much easier in SharePoint 2010. The number of items that can be displayed in a view has increased to 5000, and by using metadata navigation, you don’t need to create myriad folders just to stay within the 5000-item limit.

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