R/2 -> R/3 Processes - SAP WM

This section describes transactions in the R/2 System that initiate a communication process with the R/3 Warehouse Management applications component.

Overview of R/2 -> R/3 Processes
Communication takes place between R/2 → R/3 with the following transactions :

  • Material master changes (creating/changing)
  • Goods movements from Inventory Management
  • Posting changes from Inventory Management
  • Transmission of delivery data from Sales and Distribution

Overview of R/2 -> R/3 Processes

Material Master Maintenance
A material master record exists in both the SAP R/3 System and the host system.
Material Master R/2
The material master in R/2 contains data of the central applications (Material Requirements Planning, Sales and Distribution, and so on). It does not contain any Warehouse Management data for the storage location managed in R/3.
Material Master R/3
The material master in R/3 contains two types of data:

  • General material data
    This includes data such as the material short text and stockkeeping unit (base unit of measure in R/3) which are taken from the R/2 material master.
  • Warehouse Management data
    This includes data such as storage unit loading instructions and the storage type indicator, which only exist in R/3 because they are only relevant for the R/3 Warehouse Management component.

Where is General Material Data Maintained?
Since general data exists in both systems, error prevention mechanisms are required to make sure that they do not differ from each other in both systems. To ensure this, one of the two systems needs to be defined as the leading system, that is, as the system in which the data is to be maintained. The data is merely copied over into the other system. There the data can only be displayed, not maintained.

The leading system for the maintenance of a material master record is always the R/2 System since general data in the host system is primarily important for the R/2 logistics applications.You must always maintain a material master record in R/2 first. Only when the material master record has been created in R/2 and copied over into R/3 can you maintain the Warehouse Management data in R/3.

To prevent material data copied into the R/3 System from being changed, the maintenance of the views in the material master record must be limited using the authorizations (Object M_MATE_STA).

Subsequent Maintenance of Warehouse Management Data
If you create a warehouse material in the R/2 System, you must maintain the Warehouse Management data in the R/3 System before the first goods movement takes place. Only then can the system carry out postings for the material in the R/3 system.

If no Warehouse Management data exists during a goods movement for the material being transferred, this causes a logical error during the communication process. The communication document cannot be processed in R/3.

To avoid this, there should be no time lapse between the maintenance of a material master record in R/2 and the subsequent maintenance of the Warehouse Management data. For this purpose, an automatic Mail message is sent to the responsible user in R/3 when a material master record is maintained in R/2. This message points out that the Warehouse Management data of the material needs to be maintained as well.

Material master records can also be created in the R/2 Shipping applications component and processed in the R/3 Shipping component. See Shipping Processes (R/2-R/3).

Creating the Material Master Record in R/2
The general process for creating or changing a material master record in an R/2 System that is linked to an R/3 Warehouse Management component is as follows:

Creating the Material Master Record in R/2

  1. An R/2 user creates the material master record in the R/2 System, for example, using the transaction TJ10.
  2. If the user maintains the plant data, the system checks whether the plant is managed by the R/3 Warehouse Management component and whether all the statuses required for Warehouse Management (for example, engineering, purchasing) are maintained. If this is the case, the system creates a communication document that contains the material data relevant for the warehouse and sends this document to R/3.
  3. This initiates the following actions in the R/3 System:
    • The system creates a new material master record (in the background) with the following views:
      - Engineering/Design
      - Storage
    • The person responsible for R/3 material master maintenance receives a Mail message that refers to the new material master record. This Mail message can be sent as an "express" message if desired (see Mail Control in the R/3 System).
  4. As soon as the Mail message has been received, the R/3 user can maintain (create) the material master record data for the Warehouse Management view. Only the views maintained by the system (engineering and storage data) can be displayed as illustrated below.
  5. Creating-the-Material-Master-Record-in-R-2

    Mail messages can be viewed by choosing Office Inbox from the SAP main menu bar.

Technical Process in R/2
Whenever a material master record is changed or created in the R/2 System, this initiates the following actions in the R/2 System:

Technical Process in R/2

Relevant Field Check
Material data maintenance is only relevant for Warehouse Management if a plant segment is created.

Creating a Material Master Record
When you post a new material master record in the system, the data relevant for the warehousing system is downloaded if a plant segment is created as well. If the new material master record is only created at client or company code level, the interface to the R/3 warehouse will not be activated. If a plant segment is created, the system checks in table 340 whether the plant is linked to an R/3 warehouse number. For each plant and warehouse number in this table, a data record is created.

In plant 01, storage location 88 is linked to an R/3 warehouse number. In plant 02 no storage location is managed by an R/3 system. In the R/2 host system, a user creates the client and company code data for a material as well as the plant data for plant 02. This new material is not relevant for the R/3 Warehouse Management component. If you now create the plant data for plant 01, a communication process takes place.

Changing a Material Master Record
You always change general material data in the R/2 System. If you make a change to a relevant field in a material master record in the R/2 System, the system creates a new communication document to be sent to the R/3 System.

Procedure
The procedure is as follows:

  1. An R/2 user changes data in the material master record that is relevant for Warehouse Management.
  2. The system concludes that the data needs to be downloaded to the R/3 System and thus creates a communication document that will be sent to the R/3 System.
  3. Based on this communication, the material data is changed in the R/3 System.

Changing Warehouse Management Data
You change Warehouse Management data in the R/3 System. In this case, no communication takes place because only the R/3 material master contains Warehouse Management data. When a changed material master record is posted in the system, the system checks the following items, regardless of the segment changed (that is client, company code, or plant):

  • Whether a plant segment exists for a plant that is linked to an R/3 warehouse number
  • Whether all the required statuses are maintained .
  • Whether the changed fields are relevant for Warehouse Management. The fields relevant for Warehouse Management are defined in table 348B.

Storage location 88 in plant 01 is linked to an R/3 warehouse number. Plant segment 01 is not yet maintained for a material. If a user changes the material short text (client level), this change is not relevant for the R/3 Warehouse Management component. However, if plant segment 01 exists for a material and a user changes the material short text, the change is relevant for Warehouse Management.

Checking Maintained Statuses
If the material master record is relevant for the warehouse, the system checks in table 348A whether all the statuses required for the material category and the material type are maintained. table 348A (illustrated below) lists the views that must be maintained for material types. The maintenance of these views affect the transmission of communication documents to the R/3 system.

Material Application/Type for R/3 WM (Table 348A in R/2)

Material Application/Type for R/3 WM (Table 348A in R/2)

The following statuses, for example, must be maintained for a trading good (material type HAWA) of the chemical industry (material application type C):

  • Engineering (K)
  • Purchasing (E)
  • Sales (V)
  • Warehouse (L)

Only when all the relevant statuses have been maintained (that is, the views listed in table 348A for the material type) can the material data be transmitted to the R/3 Warehouse Management component without error.

Creating a Data Extract
Via table 348B the system determines the material master fields that are to be downloaded. The system first places these fields as a material master extract into temporary storage in table LD05.

Determining the Transmission Program
Via table 347, the processing task calls up the program that creates the communication document and writes it into the queue.

Determining the Receiver
Via table 342, the transmission program determines the communication number for transaction 003 and then, via table 343, finds the technical definition of the receiving system. table 343 also contains information as to whether the communication document is to be transmitted automatically or manually. If several R/3 warehouse numbers are linked to the R/2 system, a communication document must be created and transmitted for each R/3 warehouse number.

Creating and Transmitting the Communication Document
The transmission program creates the communication document LDK05 from the material master extract LD05. The fields are converted to R/3 format. This communication document consists of a record of the record type WM05 and is given the record status S (single).)

The communication document is first placed into a queue (DOUT). If the transmission is automatic, the document is sent immediately. If you want to start the driver manually, you use the appropriate transaction Material data is sent as soon as materials are created for the assigned plant, independent of whether the storage location segments are created or not. If you want to specify which materials are transmitted to the R/3 System, you can copy the transmission program, modify it and enter the information in table 347 instead of using the standard transmission program RLDLVS02.

Technical Process in R/3
If an LDK05 communication document is downloaded to the R/3 System, this initiates the following actions to change the material master record in R/3:

Technical Process in R/3

Receiving the Communication Document
The communication document is received in R/3 by a receiving routine and then stored in table LDK05. Parallel to this, a status record is written into table LDK00 for managing the communication document.

Further Processing
The communication document is processed and checked by a further routine. The system calls up the transaction for maintaining the material master data via the CALL TRANSACTION. The material master record is created or changed, respectively.

If an error occurs during further processing of the document, this is noted in the status record for error recovery later on. The responsible user receives a Mail message pointing out the error.

Goods Receipt / Goods Issue
To post a goods transfer for the R/3 WM component, two documents are always required:

  • Material Document in Inventory Management
    The material document goods receipt or goods issue (GR/GI) document is posted in the R/2 System and initiates the updating of the stock quantities and values in Inventory Management.
  • Transfer Order in Warehouse Management
    The transfer order is posted in the R/3 System and used to determine the storage bins for the stock placement/removal. It initiates the updating of the stock quantities in Warehouse Management.

Creating Transfer Orders Automatically
As in the integrated Warehouse Management component, transfer orders can be generated automatically in the R/3 WM component after communication documents have been posted to the interface and the transfer requirements or posting change notices have been created from them. Using a background process, the system attempts to create transfer orders. In the case of an error, an express mail can be sent to an appropriate user. This user can then keep himself/herself informed about the error via his/her inbox and initiate the creation of a transfer order in a dialog box.

The activation of this function is dependent upon the movement type and takes place in the R/2 System . To assign the recipient for mail messages in case of errors, see "Define decentralized link to R/2" in the Warehouse Management IMG documentation. You can assign a separate user for each communication document record type. The automatic creation of transfer orders is only possible beginning with Release 5.0G of the R/2 System.

Decision on Leading System
For each movement, you must decide which system is the leading system - that is, where you want to post the data first. If you want to post the GR/GI document in Inventory Management first, there is a communication from R/2 _ R/3. This communication type will be explained in this section.

If you want to post the transfer order in Warehouse Management first, there is a communication from R/3 _ R/2. This communication type is explained in the section R/3 _ R/2 Processes . Certain goods movements, such as goods receipts for purchase orders, should be posted in Inventory Management first because in this transaction the system carries out checks that are only possible in the R/2 system.

General Process
If a goods movement (for example, goods receipt) is posted in Inventory Management first, and then in Warehouse Management, the procedure is as follows:

General Process

Goods Receipt

  1. You post the goods receipt in the R/2 System (example: goods receipt for purchase order with transaction TL01). With this posting, you must enter a storage location.
  2. The system establishes that the storage location is linked to an R/3 warehouse number and that a communication needs to take place. It creates the communication document and sends this document to R/3.
  3. The communication initiates the following postings in R/3:
    - a positive quant is posted to the GR (goods receipt) interim storage area.
    - a transfer requirement is created.
  4. To place the goods into storage, you create a transfer order by referring to the transfer requirement that was created automatically. For information about how to create transfer orders from transfer requirements in WM, see Transfer Orders.

Goods Issue
In the case of a goods issue, the procedure is the same, but this time the communication initiates the following updates in the R/3 System:

  • A negative quant is posted to the GI (goods issue) interim storage area.
  • A transfer requirement for stock removal is created.

No LVS Posting Line
When you enter a goods movement in Inventory Management, it is not possible to view the interim storage information on the detail screen of an item (as in the integrated version of the system) because the interim storage area is determined and posted to only in the R/3 System.

Screen for Planning Date/Time
You can, however, enter a planning date and time for transfer requirement processing on an additional screen. This screen only appears if an indicator is set in the table for movement type control (table 341 in the R/2 System). This data is also transmitted.

Dynamic Coordinate
The dynamic coordinate of the interim storage area is generated from the GR/GI document number for all goods. In this way, there is always a direct link between the interim storage quant and the posting transaction in Inventory Management.

Interim Storage Area Search in R/2 - R/3 Interface
You can facilitate interim storage area searches in the R/3 WM component the same as you would in the integrated WM component; that is, the WM movement type determines the storage bin for the respective interface.

You activate this new type of interim storage area search at the warehouse number level. To define the search method for interim storage postings, see the section Define decentralized linkto R/2 in the Warehouse Management IMG documentation.

Account Assignment
The R/2 account assignment (for example, purchase order, cost center) is copied into the transfer requirement as the R/3 requirement. In this way, you can process the transfer requirements for a particular account assignment (requirement).

Differences
Differences recorded during transfer order confirmation are transmitted to the R/2 System. This procedure is described in the section on R/3 _ R/2 Processes

Technical Process in R/2
When a goods movement is recorded in R/2, the communication process is as follows:

Technical Process in R/2

Checking Whether Relevant for Warehouse Management
The system checks the entries in table 340 to determine whether the storage location is linked to an R/3 warehouse number.
Determining the LVS Movement Type
In table 341, the system finds the LVS movement type for the RM reference movement type as well as other information for Warehouse Management (for example, the stock category, the account assignment indicator, the transfer requirement indicator).
Creating the Data Extract
The system creates a data extract LD01 from the data to be transmitted from the GR/GI document. This data extract contains the relevant data from the RM document and data (for example, the special stock number) that is also determined automatically for the R/3 Warehouse Management component.
Determining the Transmission Program
Via table 347 the system processing task calls up the program that creates and transmits the communication document.
Determining the Receiver
Using table 342, the transmission program determines the communication number for the transaction activity key 001 and in table 343 finds the technical definition of the receiver and the type of transmission (automatic/manual).

It is possible to control the determination of the receiver using the movement type. In this way, individual movements can be handled differently. For example, you can have some goods movements (such as goods receipts for purchase orders) transmitted automatically and movements with lower priority transmitted at a later time (manually).

Creating the Communication Document
The transmission program creates the communication document LDK01 from the data extract LD01. Here the fields are converted to R/3 format automatically. The system reads table 344B in order to convert the R/2 account assignment type into the R/3 requirement indicator. The units of measure are decoded based on table 006Z.
Structure of the Communication Document
The communication document consists of records of the record type WM01. The system creates a record for each document item that is relevant for the warehouse. The first record is given the status F (First), and the last record is given the status L (Last). The status field remains blank for records located between the first and last positions in the communication document.

Transmitting the Communication Document
The communication document is transmitted either automatically or manually to the R/3 System as soon as the driver is activated.

Technical Process in R/3
If a communication document LDK01 is transmitted from the R/2 System to the R/3 System, this initiates the following actions in R/3:

Technical Process in R/3

Receiving the Communication Document
The communication document that is created in R/2 when a goods movement takes place is received in the R/3 System by a receiving routine and stored in table LDK01.
Status Record in Table LDK00
At the same time, the system writes a status record into table LDK00 that is used for managing the communication document.

Further Processing: The individual records of the communication document are processed and checked by a further routine. The postings required for the goods movements are carried out automatically.

If an error occurs during the processing of a communication document, the corresponding communication document is noted in the status table LDK00 and the person responsible for the transaction receives a Mail message pointing out the error. See Mail Control in the R/3 System .

Posting Changes in R/3
Similar to the procedure in the integrated R/3 System, a posting change for the R/2-R/3 link (for example, release of stock from quality inspection) is posted first in the Inventory Management (IM) component (as a transfer posting) and afterwards in WM. This posting initiates the following updates in WM:

Posting Changes in R/3

  • Two quants are posted to the posting change area:
  • a negative quant with the material identification of the stock to be cleared
  • a positive quant with the material identification of the stock to be posted.
  • The system generates a posting change notice. This serves as a basis for the posting change transfer order.

Window for Goods Receipt Document
During the posting change transaction in Inventory Management, you can enter the goods receipt document to which the posting change refers. For example, when stock is released from inspection, you can enter the number of the originating document.

Technical Process
The only difference from other goods movements is that the communication document consists of LDK02 records (instead of LDK01 records for other movements).

Stock Transfers in R/3
A stock transfer involving the R/3 system is treated as either of the following, depending on the procedure used and the warehouse numbers involved:

  • Goods receipt or goods issue posting
  • Posting change

Stock Transfer as Goods Receipt/Goods Issue Posting
A stock transfer that is executed with the two-step procedure is generally posted as a goods receipt or goods issue posting :

  • Based on the stock removal (GI posting). a negative quant and a transfer requirement are automatically generated in Warehouse Management.
  • Based on the stock placement (GR posting), a positive quant and a transfer requirement are automatically generated in Warehouse Management.

A stock transfer that is executed using the one-step procedure is treated as a GR/GI posting if different warehouse numbers are involved in the goods movement.

Stock Transfer as Goods Receipt/Goods Issue Posting

Two communication documents of the type LDK01 are created and transmitted for this movement. The warehouse number in each communication document is determined from the plant/storage location issuing or receiving the goods.

Stock Transfer as Posting Change
A stock transfer with the single-step procedure is considered as a posting change if this movement takes place within a warehouse number. This is the case if two plants are linked to the same warehouse number. For this type of movement, the system creates and transmits only one communication document of the type LDK02:

Stock Transfer as Posting Change

In the R/3 System, two quants are posted to the posting change interim storage area, and a posting change notice is also created.

Cancellation Posting
If a cancellation posting is necessary for the R/3 system, you need to cancel the posting in the system that initiated the transaction. If you entered a goods movement in the Inventory Management component first, then you should also post the cancellation in this component first.

If you want to cancel a goods movement in Inventory Management, you need to distinguish between the following situations:

  • Is the cancellation quantity still in the interim storage area? or
  • Has a transfer order been created already?

Cancellation Posting Before Creating the Transfer Order
If the quantity concerned is still in the interim storage area, the following updates take place in Warehouse Management during the cancellation posting:

  • The interim storage quant is adjusted by the cancellation quantity.
  • The transfer requirement or the posting change notice is updated. A cancellation posting which takes place before a transfer order has been created is illustrated below:
  • Cancellation Posting Before Creating the Transfer Order

Cancellation Posting After Creating the Transfer Order
If the goods have already been transferred, the following updates take place in Warehouse Management:

  • A new quant is posted to the interim storage area.
  • A transfer requirement or a posting change notice is generated. A cancellation posting which takes place after the creation of a transfer order is illustrated below:
  • Cancellation Posting After Creating the Transfer Order

For the cancellation posting, a transfer order with a reference to the transfer request or the posting change notice needs to be created. It is also possible that a partial transfer takes place. In that case, it is a mixed process.

Entering the Cancellation Document
When you are entering the cancellation document in Inventory Management, you can enter the canceled document in an additional screen. This screen is displayed only if you set an indicator in the table for the movement type control.


All rights reserved © 2018 Wisdom IT Services India Pvt. Ltd DMCA.com Protection Status

SAP WM Topics