The Basic Sales Cycle - SAP SD

We’ll now discuss the basic set of transactions that are most important in the SD area. The term sales cycle refers to the creation of a sales order document followed by delivery and a billing document. As we go along, we will tell you the transaction codes at each step. We will also point out how this book is structured to help you understand each area and functionality in the sales cycle.

Create a Sales Order

To create a sales order, follow the menu path SAP Menu >Logistics > Sales And Distribution > Sales > Order > Create . Again, note that the transaction code mentioned in parentheses after the path will lead you to the same screen. the sales order creation screen. Before you create a sales order, you must enter the organizational data such as sales organization, distribution channel, division, sales office, and sales group. This maps the organizational entities in your company.

To learn about how to set up the organizational structure in SAP, “Enterprise Structure.” will explain how to configure SAP so the organizational entities are created and assigned to one another.You must also specify the type of order document being created. After entering this information, you can proceed to the next screen, the Overview screen .

Creating a sales order

Creating a sales order
Create Standard Order: Overview screen

Create Standard Order: Overview screen

The sales document consists of header, item, and schedule line data. At the header level, you specify the details that are applicable to the entire document, such as the customer number (sold-to party) and the purchase order reference number. At the item level, you enter the products ordered. Details such as the material number,quantity, and item price, and so on, will be different on each line. The schedule line data pertains to delivery-related details such as delivery dates and delivery quantities.

You’ll use master data at every step of the transaction. Data about your regular customers or the products and services offered are examples of master data. You have to maintain the repository of master data before using it in transactions. To learn more about master data setup, “Master Data in SD.”

From the overview screen of a sales order, you can branch out to different screens to get into various aspects of the process such as pricing and availability dates. To navigate between screens, you can click the tabs that appear on the page. An alternative way is to use the Goto menu at the top of the screen. It lists all the detail tabs at the header and item levels.

For example, if you want to know all the partner functions associated with the sales transaction, you can select GotoHeaderPartner. this tab lists all the partners such as the sold-to party, ship-to party, bill-to party, and payer for this order. If you have different partners at each line item level, you can specif y them on the Partners tab (which you can reach by selecting GotoItem Partn er).

Sales order: Header Data, Partners tab

Sales order: Header Data, Partners tab

Another screen is the Texts tab, which appears at the header and item levels. The menu pat his eit her GotoHeaderText or Goto ItemText. Here you store all the text messages and instructions that you want to flow with the order.

Sales order: Header Data, Texts tab

Sales order: Header Data, Texts tab

You can customize the setup for partners, texts, and outputs as per your requirements. In partner determination, you can control which partner functions are of importance to you and make them mandatory. Text determination helps you set up how the texts are copied from one document to another. Output determination lets you customize the outputs from sales documents and transmit them to the business partners. For example, you can use it to send out a copy of an order confirmation document to the customer in print or by email or EDI.

One of the most important parts of a sales transaction is the price that the customer has to pay. The price can be entered manually in the sales order. However, if your product prices are going to be stable for certain duration, you can maintain price records and set up automatic price determination to avoid manual entry.

To see how the exact price has been computed for a sales item, select Goto ItemConditions. the pricing schema gives you the details of the various pricing conditions in it. Pricing conditions are things such as base prices, discounts, freight conditions, or taxes. Certain pricing conditions can apply to the entire order (such as total freight charges). These are listed in the Header conditions tab.To learn how to customize pricing “Pricing and Tax Determination.”

Sales order: Item Data, Conditions tab

Sales order: Item Data, Conditions tab

Availability check controls how product availability is checked and the date on which you can commit the delivery to the customer.as soon as you enter a material in the sales order, the system can be configured to carry out an availability check and display the earliest date on which this product can be delivered.In a sales order, you can always check the schedule lines by selecting Goto ItemSchedule Lines. you can check the dates on which the quantity can be confirmed.

Availability Control

Availability Control
Sales order: Schedule Lines tab

Sales order: Schedule Lines tab

We have now covered some of the major screens in a sales order. Other sales documents may also need to be configured to meet different business processes. For example, you may have separate sales documents for returns or for presales such as inquiries and quotations.

Creating a Delivery

To create a delivery, use the menu path SAP MenuLogisticsLogistics Execution Outbound ProcessGoods Issue For Outbound DeliveryOutbound Delivery CreateSingle Document With Reference to Sales Order (VL01N). On this screen, you specify the shipping point (which is another organizational unit related to your plant)

Creating an outbound delivery

Creating an outbound delivery

On the delivery overview screen, the relevant data has been copied over from the reference sales order. Product details and delivery quantity are the key fields here .

From this step onward, the logistics processes of picking, packing, transportation planning and execution, and goods issue are carried out. The process extends all the way up to the goods leaving your premises and traveling to the customer’s location. The process is so vast that it has been placed under a separate application named Logistics Execution. In the customization menu, you have to refer to this node to maintain settings for deliveries.
Delivery Overview screen

Delivery Overview screen
Creating a Billing Document

The last step in the sales cycle is to bill the customer for the goods delivered or the service rendered. To create a billing document, the path is as follows: SAP Menu LogisticsSales And DistributionBillingBilling DocumentCreate. A billing document is created with reference to either a sales order or a delivery. A correction document such as a credit or debit note can also be set up from this transaction. Enter the documents that are to be billed, and click Execute .

Creating a Billing Document

Creating a Billing Document

Again, you will observe that all the critical data is copied over from the reference document.We mentioned the areas of pricing, outputs, and text in the context of sales documents. These also appear in the subsequent documents such as deliveries and billing documents. After a billing document is created, it is released to accounting. This updates all the relevant general ledger accounts with the transaction amounts. This is the interface between SAP’s SD and FI/CO applications.

Some organizations require that billing the customer and updating the revenue books should occur at different times. The revenue recognition functionality helps you meet these requirements.The settings for account assignment and revenue recognition are carried out within the SD module. Hence, it is important to know how they are controlled and determined.


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