Working with the Transport Organizer SAP BASIS

The Transport Organizer is activated automatically every time a user edits a repository object. The user is able to create or modify the object only if he or she has opened a change request or uses an existing change request in the Transport Organizer. Entering objects in requests ensures that all changes made in the ABAP development workbench and customizing are registered. Except in specific instances, all changes to customizing objects such as table entries are also registered in the Transport Organizer. The transport system is used to transfer objects from one SAP system to another. The transport system also takes care of checking and monitoring the results of the transport requests. A transport can be seen as having two phases: an export phase and an import phase. The export phase is executed automatically from the organizers when users release their transportable change requests. The results of the exports are logged and the files at the operating system level generated.

The export phase also performs an import test to simulate the import at the target system so if it finds inconsistencies, you can correct them before actually importing the objects. The import phase has to be performed by the system administrator at the operating system level or using the TMS, but the results are also recorded in the transport logs and can be checked within the SAP system.

The transport system allows the following components to be transported:

  • New or corrected objects created by customers
  • Standard objects from the SAP system
  • Table entries

The transportable objects are virtually any SAP objects, including programs, function modules, forms, documentation, table definitions (structure), data elements, domains, screens, menus, print definitions, and number ranges; also, as stated in the preceding list, table entries that are not by themselves development objects, but data, are included, too. Objects or table entries can be transported whether they have been modified or not. The following sections explain how to proceed to perform transports successfully by observing the available options and restrictions of the SAP system.

The transport control program tp, which ultimately performs imports and exports at the operating system level.

Creating Change Requests

Although there are two main types or categories of change requests, SYST (workbench) and CUST (customizing), the flexibility and features of the Change and Transport Organizers are further enhanced, with the possibility of relocating objects, instituting packages, copying objects, including requests within requests, and so on. All of these special functions are performed using the Transport Organizer (SE01). The following sections and examples deal with the most common and typical tasks to be performed when working with regular workbench and customization tasks and change requests.

There are two basic ways to create a change request:

  • Automatically. When creating or modifying an object, or when performing customization settings, the system displays the dialog box for creating a change request. It is important to note that any users who need to perform development on the system or modification to SAP object originals must be registered using the SAP Software Change Registration (SSCR).
  • Manually. Create the request from the Transport Organizer, and then enter required attributes and insert objects. The manual creation of transports is sometimes very useful when transporting copies of objects to systems outside the system group, when copying specific table entries among systems, or for solving synchronization problems. To create a change request manually in the initial Transport Organizer requests screen, click on the Create icon on the application toolbar. The system will display a new dialog screen in which it will ask to specify a type of request.

Figure shows this dialog box. The two main types of requests are as follows:

  • Workbench requests. Regular workbench requests (category SYST) that will contain objects with the correct packages, and that will have a transport layer and a target system
  • Customizing requests. Change requests that will contain customization settings that can either be client dependent (CUST category) or applicable to all clients (SYST category)

Create request dialog box

Create request dialog box

Other types of requests that you can manually create are as follows:

  • Copy of transports. Change requests that can be used to merge objects of different change requests or select a smaller set of objects of another request.
  • Relocations. Allows you to move development with three options: (1) Transport objects without package change. This can be done to develop objects in another system on a temporary basis. (2) Transport objects with package change allow reassignment of objects in the current and imported systems. (3) Relocation of complete package allows all objects to be organized in one transport.
  • Piece lists. Lists that allow a user-defined request name. The lists cannot be released or transported. They can be used as a template to add objects to another request by using the Include Objects function in SE01.

You will also see the following two types of requests in the Transport Organizer:

  • Local requests. Requests that will not be transported, mostly because they are meant for use in editing or creating objects for test purposes.
  • Unclassified requests. Requests whose type is not initially assigned or empty but will be manually entered when appropriate. This option is only visible on the requests overview lists.

To manually create a change request and associated tasks, click on the Create icon and specify a type of request. The system will display a dialog box like the one shown in Figure. Normally you only have to specify a short descriptive text and enter the usernames to participate in this request. The system will create a task for each of the usernames. You can also specify special request attributes for qualifying and evaluating change requests. SAP provides several standard attributes, like SAPCORR, SAPNOTE, and so on. You can add your own by editing table WBOATTR using transaction SM30.

Releasing Tasks and Requests

When new developments, corrections, or customizing work is complete, team leaders or project managers must release their tasks. To release a task, go to the initial Transport Organizer screen. As request types, select the Transportable and Modifiable check boxes, and deselect other options. Then, click on the Display pushbutton, or press ENTER. The system will display a list with the change requests that have not yet been released. To list the tasks, open up the change requests by clicking the + sign on the folder signs. Position the cursor on the task to be released and click on the Release button on the application toolbar. You can figure out which tasks have been already released by the color coding (Utilities | Legend). If the task is a repair, the system will display a dialog box asking whether to confirm the repair automatically.

Requests display screen

Requests display screen

When releasing a task, the system will automatically show the documentation screen for entering whatever descriptive text should be held with the tasks. Enter your documentation in the editor screen, click the Save button, and then click the Back icon. The system will inform you that the task is being released in response to the change request. If there were any locks on development objects included within the task, those locks are transferred to the change request, along with the documentation for the tasks.

Then developers finish working on their tasks and have released them, then requests themselves can be released. This process is almost the same as releasing tasks. Just position the cursor on a transportable change request whose tasks have already been released, and click the Release button on the application toolbar. The system will display a message on the screen indicating that the objects are being exported, or you might get an error message if there is any problem with the objects within the change request. If the release is normal, an export run takes place, exporting the object data to operating system files in which the import to the target system takes place. When the request is released the locks on the objects are removed, allowing users to make further changes.

Monitoring Transports and Repairs

The square box Global Information on the right side of the initial Transport Organizer screen in extended view (transaction SE01) contains two stoplights with a summary of the transports and repairs performed in and out of the system. Click the pushbuttons to display the associated change requests. The change requests corresponding to the selected categories are displayed in a hierarchical list. You can navigate this list, from which you can see the transport logs at the last level of the hierarchy. Double-clicking on the line will display the transport log screen, in which you can select the level of detail to be displayed.

An example of the transport log and the codes is shown later in the section entitled "Checking Transport Results," where the return codes of the logs are also explained. If you find the reason for the error and have corrected it, you can select Transport/Repair | Error Corrected from the menu bar of this screen, which will delete the error from the display. This function is recorded in the transport action log. To see the action log, select Goto | Action Log from the menu bar.

You can enter criteria for searching and displaying different types of change requests. To display an individual change request or task, or to perform a search, select the Display tabstrip on the main Transport Organizer screen. In the input field you can enter a request or task number and click ENTER. If you click the possible entries arrow on this dialog box, the system shows an additional screen for entering criteria and searching requests. You can also select the request from different user. This is done by entering the user name in the Owner input field.

From the list display, also in hierarchical form, you can navigate and expand the branches until you reach specific objects contained in the tasks.

Transport Rules

When creating transport requests or performing imports, some restrictions must be observed to maintain the consistency of the transported objects. Transports cannot overwrite or delete original objects or objects under repair in the target system. In special situations, imports that overwrite such objects can be performed with special unconditional modes of the tp program. However, this should only be performed under the instructions of SAP specialists. You cannot transport copies of objects to a target system (consolidation system) that is not included the consolidation transport route. This is automatically set by the Transport Organizer with transportable change requests. The restriction is imposed by the package of the objects, which indicates the integration system and the consolidation system for the objects.

Transports to any recipient system should only be performed from the consolidation system to which the system has subscribed. These transports are automatically included in the import queue of the recipient systems, as defined in the delivery routes.

Specifying Objects to Transport

When working with tasks and change requests directly with the Workbench Organizer, the object list is generated automatically when the tasks are released. The task numbers are included within the object list of the transportable change requests. But you can also enter objects to be transported using the organizer object list maintenance tools, which provide utilities for creating objects lists, copying and pasting, and so on. To create or modify an object list, select the change request from the request overview screen. You can either include the object directly in the change request or in tasks. Position your cursor on the change request or task, and double-click on it. The Transport Organizer shows the Change Request/Task screen. Select the Objects tabstrip. Click on the Display/Change icon to access the edit mode.

Object list maintenance screen

Object list maintenance screen

In this screen you can manually enter the objects you wish to transport. There are eight columns:

  • Short Description. This is filled automatically once the object is entered and is taken from the object description.
  • Program ID. The program ID is part of the name of an object type for its use in the Workbench Organizer and the transport system. Press F4 or click on the possible entries arrow to display a list of allowable values. Normally, the R3TR value is used for ensuring the consistency of all related objects in a transport. For example, if you want to transport a new table between systems, the R3TR program ID ensures the transport of all the needed and related objects for the table, including the data elements and domains.
  • Object Type. This is the object type. The system uses this type to perform the needed operations at the target system. There are hundreds of types, which you can look up by pressing the F4 function key. Most typical are PROG, which means ABAP source code and CUA definitions; TABLE for table definitions; and TABU for table contents
  • Object Name. This is the object name, for example, a table name, a program name, a view name, and so forth.
  • Function. The function column is normally grayed out. It can be used to specify special functions for an object entry. For example, suppose you want to transport the contents of a long table, but only want to transport those entries that match a particular key value. You can do this with function K. To access this field, click over the Function icon. Some object types do not have any object function.
  • Lock/Import Status. The Object Status field is automatically maintained by the system and is mainly a lock indicator.
  • Language. This is either blank or filled out automatically to denote the language used for the object definition.
  • IMG Activity. If the object has been included from an IMG (Implementation Guide) activity, this would be filled out automatically with the activity that wrote the object in the request.

Protecting a Transport Request

When temporarily finished working on a change request, you can decide to protect it so that no other tasks can be assigned to the request. To protect a change request, locate your change request with the Transport Organizer, select it, and choose Request/Task | Request | Protect. You can later remove the protection at your convenience. When a request is protected, the objects in the lists get the status locked and this prevents other users from modifying them.

If the system successfully locks all the objects in a change request, the status of the request is set to LOCKEDALL. From the Transport Organizer, you see the status as Protected. If the status shows LOCKED instead of LOCKEDALL, it means that some object in the request could not be successfully locked. If you are going to release and export your requests immediately, you don't need to protect the request. Protecting a request is a useful function when working for several days on some objects and you want to discourage other users from modifying them.

Checking Transport Results

There are several ways to display the result of a transport. One of them was introduced in the previous section about working with the Workbench Organizer. Another option for displaying logs is to do so from the requests overview screen by selecting the change requests and then choosing Goto | Transport Log. Transport logs only exist when the release of the change request has been performed.

Overview of transport logs for a request

Overview of transport logs for a request

There are two main types of logs:

  • Action log, which logs and displays actions that have taken place: export, test import, import, and so forth
  • Transport log, which keeps a record of the log files generated by the transport steps

The transport log includes several levels of detail, from a summary information screen to a more detailed output where you can even see exactly which objects have been transported, how long it took, and possible warnings or errors.

Example of a transport log

Example of a transport log

Transport logs have several levels of details that you can expand or compress using the icons in the application toolbar. In Figure the transport log for the main import in the production system is completely expanded. Additionally, the upper line on the display shows the location of the log file at the operating system level. The most important information on the transport log is the return code, which indicates whether the transport was successfully performed. The codes have the following meanings:

  • 0. The transport was successful.
  • 4. The transport has at least one warning message. The objects in the request have been transported but the system warns that some action might have been improperly set in the transport, for example, when importing an object to a system that was not the original target system.
  • 8. The transport has some severe errors that prevented the objects from being transported. You should look at the error messages and take a corrective action before performing the transport again.
  • 12 or higher. The system has flagged a fatal error. These errors normally are not related to the transport content itself but to some SAP system error that can be related to the operating system or to the database system. In such cases, perform the basic troubleshooting with the CCMS tools and contact the SAP hotline or look up your error messages in SAPnet.

Object Attributes

As mentioned earlier, the attributes of an object offer important information that directly relates to the way the object can be handled by the Workbench Organizer and the transport system. The attributes for all objects in the system are held in the TADIR table, which is the repository object directory. This table can be displayed from the general table maintenance function, (transactions SM30) or from the data browser (transaction SE16). Only authorized users can maintain this table, however; modifying entries from this table could have unexpected results and should be avoided except if instructed by a SAP note or by SAP support personnel. From the transport system there are other menu options to display the TADIR table or only the records containing the attributes related to a particular object. For example,

  • Selecting Object | Object Directory Entry from the request overview screen, when an object has been previously selected
  • From the menu of the object list maintenance screen, selecting an object and then choosing Goto | Transport Organizer Tool.

Selecting an object and using one of these options allows you to see the following attributes:

  • Program ID, object type, and object name. The identification of an object for the Workbench Organizer and the transport system. The meaning of these fields is explained in the previous section entitled "Specifying Objects to Transport."
  • Author. The user ID of the person who created the object or is responsible for it.
  • Package. The package of the object, which specifies the integration and consolidation system for the object; therefore, it restricts the allowable transport routes to other systems.
  • Original system (SRCSYSTEM), for which the object is considered original. It could be the same system in which it was originally created or can be another one if the object was transported changing the authorization.
  • An entry flag (SRCDEP), which indicates whether the object is under repair or is system specific. In these cases, the object is protected from being overwritten by other transports.

To find additional information or get reports on tasks, change requests, repairs, and so forth, use the Workbench Organizer tools (transaction SE03), which are available as an icon in the application toolbar on the organizer screens.

Transport Organizer Tools

The utilities tools for the transport system provide a collection of standard and expert functions, mainly for use by the system administrator, and provide facilities for reporting, unlocking, setting the system change options, and other advanced functions over the objects controlled by the Workbench Organizer. To use some of the expert functions included within these tools, users need the CTS_ALL authorization. This screen can be accessed from the initial Workbench Organizer menu by selecting Goto | Transport Organizer Tools. Alternatively, use transaction SE03 in the command field. To get additional information about the actions or report that each of the functions perform, click on a line and select Goto | Documentation from the menu bar.

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