What's New in the Transport System with the Web Application Server? SAP BASIS

For those SAP system managers or other professionals accustomed to previous SAP R/3 releases and the Basis system, the following shows the main changes in the transport system since previous releases, as well as other useful hints:

  • Development classes are now packages.
  • Since first release of the SAP Web Application Server, there is no difference in the transactions SE09 (Customizing Organizer) and SE10 (Workbench Organizer), and they have been combined into the Transport Organizer (transaction SE01).
  • The transport system works the same in every SAP solution based on the SAP Web Application Server.
  • For the same reason, and very evidently, those menu options that previously showed "R/3 system" have been changed to "SAP system."

Overview of the Complete Process of Transporting Objects from a Source System to a Target System

The transport system together with the Transport Organizer is one of the most puzzling parts of the technical environment of SAP systems; this is probably because there is no place for chaotic and unorganized software development or customization. The transport system and Transport Organizer are actually intended as help functions for having the system development and the modifications under control. The following summary guideline provides a brief overview of the whole transport chain. This guideline includes an introduction of the necessary steps for configuring the transport system, although these steps only have to be performed once. The concepts, configuration, and available functions and features of the transport system are explained with further detail in the following sections.

The following guideline assumes that the SAP systems landscape and network connections are correctly configured. Note In the following sections, the directory notation represents Unix-flavors file system types. For Microsoft Windows platforms, it works exactly the same way, but the notation for directories is <DRIVE>:/ USR/ SAP/ TRANS, where <DRIVE> is a disk or volume unit.

Configuration steps are made of these basic tasks:

  1. If needed, configure the transport directory and configuration file TPPARAM. The transport directory (/usr/sap/trans) is created by the installation program. You have to make sure that this directory can be accessed correctly among systems within a transport group. Within the bin subdirectory, there are two global configuration files TP_DOMAIN_<SID>.PFL and TPPARAM (transport parameter file) that must include entries for each of the SAP systems taking part in transports. This file must be correctly configured for the transport control program tp to function properly.
  2. If required, initialize the Transport Organizer. This is accomplished by transaction SE06 (there is no direct menu point entry to this transaction) and is one of the first tasks to perform after the installation of the SAP systems as part of the postinstallation activities, especially if the system is based on a copy of a previous system. This transaction initializes the basic settings for the Transport Organizer and can also be used for specifying the system change option—that is, which objects and configuration settings can be modified or not within the system. This transaction distinguishes whether this R/3 system comes from a standard installation or from a systems or database copy.
  3. Configure transport systems and routes. This configuration step is performed using transaction STMS (Tools | Administration | Transports | Transport Management System) from client 000. The first time this transaction is called, the system creates a transport domain controller, a central system where all configurations is done and then transferred to other systems in the group. The easiest way to configure the systems landscape and transport routes is to select a standard configuration. This can be done by first entering the SAP systems (Overview | Systems) and then back in STMS main screen, selecting Overview | Transport Routes and Configuration | Standard Config. In this case the TMS will request the roles of the defined systems and set up the transport layer and transport routes for each. For nonstandard configurations or complex system landscapes this process must be performed manually. In addition to these configuration tasks, it is also important to set the system change options as well as to check the system client settings. These settings define what parts of the system can be changed and recorded by the organizers.

    The next steps typically are as follows:

  4. Create a package. Packages (formerly development classes) act as a way to group together objects belonging to the same development project (programs, transactions, tables, etc.). Only objects with an appropriate package can be transported to other systems. To be able to transport development objects, you must define a package that is not local (such as $TMP) or for test purposes (all starting with T). You should define the package with a name within the range allowed for customers.
  5. Create or modify an object. The process of creating a new object (a table or a report, for example) or making a customization setting automatically asks for the creation of a change request. This request will be transportable as long as the assigned package, the transport route, and/or the type permit it.

    Note The automatic creation of a change request is allowed by the SAP client settings. You can disable this function and the ability to make changes in the system client-independent objects. However, in the rest of this chapter and other chapters, it is assumed that the client allows for changes in the repository and client-independent objects.

  6. Release and export the transport. Access the Transport Organizer (SE01) and find the transportable change requests that have not yet been released. Expand the folder to access the change tasks. Change requests are composed by one or more tasks. First release the tasks and then release the change request. When the change requests are released, the system performs an export and creates several files at the operating system level.
  7. Import into the target system. When the group of SAP systems shares the same common transport directory, files that have been exported are directly accessed by the target system. Imports are performed within the TMS by accessing the system import queues and performing the imports. Imports can also be performed with the tp program at the operating system level by logging onto the target system as user <sid>adm, going to the /usr/sap/trans/bin directory, and performing the corresponding call to the program.

    For example,

    tp import <transportable change request number> <target SID>

    Imports can also be performed within the TMS by accessing the system import queues and performing the imports. Lastly, transport requests can be imports running function module trint_tp_interface in SE37. At runtime, the following are specified:

    • Import is specified at the IV_TP_COMMAND parameter.
    • Target system is specified at the IV_SYSTEM_NAME parameter.
    • Transport Req is specified at the IV_TRANSPORT_REQUEST parameter.
    • Client is specified at the IV_CLIENT parameter.
    • Unconditional modes ("umodes") are specified without the U at the IV_UMODES parameter.
  8. Check log files. You can check the log files (transport logs) from inside SAP or at the operating system level. Ultimately, try to display the objects you just imported in the target system. With these steps, a whole transport process is accomplished. The next sections discuss the concepts, details, options, and possibilities of all the SAP functions involved.

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