The transport control program tp is the SAP program that administrators use for performing and planning transports between systems and also in upgrades of the SAP systems. The tp program is used by the CTO and the TMS. The tp program uses other special programs and utilities to perform its functions. Mainly, it calls the R3trans utility program. However, tp offers a more extensive control of the transport process, ensuring the correct sequence of the exported/imported objects, because the wrong order can cause severe inconsistencies in the system.
Administrators normally use tp for performing imports; it can also be used for exports, although the normal export process is automatic when releasing change requests. The export phase extracts the objects from the database and places them on files at the operating system level, together with a control file and a transport log. The export phase is done in the source system. The import phase has to be performed in the target system. In this phase, the exported objects are inserted into the database following the instructions on the control file that came along with the data files of the export.
Importing data causes a refresh (a synchronization) of the SAP buffers, which can cause performance problems if this is done often. For that reason, it is a good practice to schedule imports at times of less interactive work, such as at night or on weekends. Before you can start using the tp program, you should ensure that the tp program is set up correctly and the requirements met. The next section explains how to set up the tp program.
Setting Up the tp Program
The tp program is located in the standard runtime directory of the SAP system. This directory is /usr/sap/SYS/<SID>/exe/run. It is automatically copied in the SAP installation process.
The requirements for using the tp program are as follows:
The Transport System at the Operating System Level: Users and Directories
In a group of related SAP systems that are going to perform transports among themselves, a correct configuration of users at operating system level and of the file directory structure is essential. In a standard R/3 installation, the system correctly sets both the users and the directories. There might be, however, some circumstances where the configuration might change unintentionally or from previous system settings. The standard transport directory is /usr/sap/trans and is shared by all the systems.
Normally, one of the systems holds it physically while others access it via NFS (network file system) or with file shares. This is done so all the systems have access to the exported files and transport logs. Otherwise, a manual copy of the needed files must be performed. It is equally important to give the right system authorization for accessing this directory. All the subdirectories should have <sid>adm as the owner. To avoid permissions problems, the normal setting is to give read, write, and execute access both to the owner and to the SAP administrator group number, sapsys. At the same time, this group should be defined the same in all SAP servers. If the group number has been manually created,modified, or previously used by other applications, problems might arise. Exports are always automatically performed by SAP systems using <sid>adm. Imports are performed at the operating system level in the target system and users must be logged on as user <sid>adm to guarantee correct file permissions.
The installation creates the subdirectory structure beneath /usr/sap/trans. The subdirectories are as follows:
TPPARAM: tp Global Parameter File
The tp program uses a parameter file, TPPARAM, located in the bin subdirectory under the transport main directory (/usr/sap/trans) that defines many important parameters that directly affect the way tp works for performing exports or imports. Every time tp is executed, it has to know the location of the TPPARAM file. For this reason, administrators call tp from the bin directory. Otherwise, the location must be specified with the option pf =. if this option is not specified, then tp must search for the TPPARAM in the current directory. This allows for the creation of different parameter files, when administrators wish to perform special functions or wish to call the tp program from a different location than /usr/sap/trans/bin.
The TPPARAM file can contain lots of parameters that can be either
Because there are many allowed parameters in TPPARAM, as with instance profiles, the parameters that are not specified will take a default value. Local parameters have precedence over global parameters. This system of precedence allows for having at the same time local and global parameters, which can be used for specifying different parameter values for special systems. The syntax on the file is very simple: comments are preceded by a # sign whereas parameters have the form of <Parameter> = <Value> for global values. If the parameter is preceded by a SAP system name and a forward slash (/), then the value only applies for that system. For example: DD1/dbhost = copi01.
When the parameters are only valid for a particular operating system, then you enter the keyword or acronym for the operating system and the | sign, for example, as4 | transdir = ... Valid keywords for operating systems are aix, hp-ux, osf1, sinix, sunos, wnt (Windows), and as4 (AS/400). Finally, when the parameters are database system dependent, the parameters are preceded by a database system acronym and the : sign. For example: ora: <parameter> = <value>. Supported acronyms of databases are ora (Oracle), inf (Informix), ada (Adabas D), mss (Microsoft SQL Server), db4 (DB2/400), and db6 (DB2 for AIX). Additionally, TPPARAM provides predefined variables that can be used when specifying parameters and that are converted at runtime. These variables must be specified with the format $(var_name), for example, $(dbname). For a list of predefined variables, refer to the online help documentation. Because there are so many possible parameters in the tp configuration file, only the most important ones are described here:
Following are database-dependent parameters that the tp program needs to establish communication with the SAP system database. Only relevant Oracle parameters are introduced here:
To display the values of the TPPARAM parameters for a particular SAP system, issue this command: tp showparams <sid>. For example: tp showparams DD1 Additionally, with the use of the "-D = <value>" option when calling the tp program, you can temporarily change individual parameter values, only valid for the current tp call. For example: tp import DD1K900052 PP1 "-D stoponerror = 1." For other TPPARAM parameters, please refer to the SAP online documentation under the transport control section.
Overview of Options for the tp Program
The tp transport control program allows system or transport administrators to perform all the management functions for the transport system. These functions are specified by entering options when calling tp. The list of available options can be obtained by issuing a tp help command. To display help for a particular option of the tp program, call the tp <command> where <command> is a valid option. The program tp includes functions for exporting, importing, performing buffer actions, managing disk space of the transport system, organizing information, and performing special functions. Only those options that are more useful in normal daily operative tasks are included here. More information about all available options can be obtained from the SAP online documentation library.
Informative options are as follows:
The main import tp command options are detailed in the following section.
Working with Imports Using tp
Although transport administration and performing imports has become much easier using the TMS import functions, it is still necessary to know how the tp control program can be used for performing imports. There are many available command options for performing imports in the R/3 system. Most of them are used for special purposes, such as importing only certain objects, performing activations, and so on.The main and most commonly used commands for the tp program when performing imports are as follows:
This option is mainly used when upgrading SAP systems. When the default parameters are set, then tp put is the same as issuing a tp import all. In order to perform imports, the administrator in charge of importing the objects into the target systems has to log on at the operating system level as user <sid>adm. Normally, the administrator imports all objects that are in the buffer waiting for an import. Because importing objects might reset the buffers, it is not convenient to launch imports during normal working hours. An alternative is to include a tp import all <sid> call in a shell script that can be scheduled using system utilities or specialized software for scheduling the import at more appropriate times.
When performing imports, the tp program performs all the necessary steps depending on the nature of the objects or data being transferred. It will perform the following steps:
Unconditional Modes in the tp Program
Unconditional modes are options that can be specified for exports or imports with the tp program and are intended for performing special actions on transport requests. Caution Use only unconditional options when you are sure of what you are doing. Otherwise, this can cause severe inconsistencies in the systems. The unconditional modes tell the tp program to overwrite the rules imposed by the objects as defined in the Workbench Organizer. For example, they allow the import of original objects when that's not permitted by the package.
Unconditional modes are numbers from 0 to 9, and they can be used in the options part of the tp call. They are always preceded by the letter U. Several unconditional modes can be used in the same command. For example: tp import DD1K900052 PP1 U18. This tells the tp to activate unconditional modes 1 and 8.
When using unconditional modes, the transport log usually issues warning messages. These are functions for every unconditional mode:
Managing Special Transports
Usually administrators should perform imports for all the change requests that have been exported for a particular system. This is accomplished by a tp import all command. This is the only way that tp can guarantee the right order for importing objects, avoiding some newer versions being overwritten by older ones. There are occasions, however, when special and individual transports must be used, for example, when performing urgent imports or for transferring client-specific data from different clients. In these cases, you must be extremely careful not to change the order of the individual change requests. These types of transports require the import for individual transport requests. For example: tp import DD1K900054 PP1. When performing individual transports, have a look at the buffer (tp showbuffer <sid>) and ensure that no other older change requests contain the objects that you are going to import individually. This process can take some time and requires the use of the transport information system.
For performing individual imports, SAP recommends using the unconditional mode 0, which does not delete the change request from the buffer and will be imported again in a normal import, but ensures the correct release order for all change requests of a system. For example: tp import DD1K900078 PP1 U0. Normally, the data exported from a source client are imported into the client with the same number; however, the tp program permits specifying a different target client on the command line. For example: tp import DD1K900078 PP1 client = 007. This type of transport is valid for all the objects in the change requests that are client specific in the source client. You should be careful when issuing a tp import all command when trying to transport to more than one client. In those cases, the only way is to transport individually every change request to the required target clients.
The Interface between tp and ABAP
The actions that the tp control program performs are not performed alone. The tp program communicates with the ABAP runtime to execute the needed actions over the transported objects (for example, structure conversion, screen generation, and so forth). The interface between the tp program and ABAP is handled by the import dispatcher background jobs and the use of two system tables: TRBAT and TRJOB. By looking at the contents of these tables while an import is going on, administrators have another way of monitoring the transports online.
The dispatcher background jobs, as explained earlier, are RDDIMPD and RDDIMPDP _CLIENT _<nnn>, which schedule further jobs when needed. These jobs schedule themselves back to wait for further import steps or new imports. When a tp command is issued at the operating system level, it sends a signal to the background processing system for the RDDIMPDP to start, makes an entry in the TRBAT table for each transport request to import, and inserts the number of the background jobs in table TRJOB. At that moment, RDDIMPDP starts processing, first checking the TRBAT table to see if there are any pending imports. If it finds an entry, it launches additional ABAP programs as background jobs that will perform the necessary actions on the transport objects.
If any step is canceled, RDDIMPDP checks for entries still existing in table TRJOB and tries to restart the action. For this reason, the system needs to have at least two free background work processes. Table TRBAT contains several fields, including the change request number, function, return code, time stamp, client, special function, and log, which logs online the actions being performed during import. The unction and the return code indicate the step being performed and the status. Refer to the SAP online documentation in the transport control section for a description of the function keys and return codes of the TRBAT table.
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