Managing Packages SAP BASIS

Packages are used by the SAP system for grouping together related development objects that belong to the same or similar application areas or similar functions. Packages are a way in which objects are classified and allow the system to perform certain functions on all objects belonging to the same packages. Packages are held and defined in table TDEVC, which can be maintained from the Object Navigator (transaction SE80) or, better yet, using the transaction SPACKAGE. To create a new package, go to the Object Navigator, and then select the Edit Object button on the application toolbar.

On the new dialog screen, select the Development Coordination tabstrip and enter the name of the new package in the Package input field and click the Create icon. If the name follows naming conventions, it will automatically include the transport layer and will be linked to the Workbench Organizer. Enter a short text describing the new package and save your entries. Alternatively, you use the context menus. Select the object tree, then right-click and select Create | Package. A package can also be created by choosing Package from the ComboBox on the left of the screen and introducing a name in the text box and then pressing ENTER.

Notice how important the definition of the package for the transport system is. Every package is assigned a transport layer, which defines the route for transports coming from the same development system. When defining new packages, carefully follow SAP's recommended naming convention:

  • Customer objects and test objects should belong to packages beginning with Y or Z. This ensures that changes to objects belonging to those classes are recorded in the Workbench Organizer and therefore can be transported.
  • Packages beginning with $ are known as local packages and the changes in these objects are not recorded and cannot be transported because the package does not have any transport layer assigned.
  • Packages that begins with a T are considered private test classes. SAP systems always include the TEST package. When creating a new class of this type, you can specify whether the Workbench Organizer should control the objects belonging to that class. If you want the Workbench Organizer to manage that class, select the check box next to Link to Workbench Organizer when creating the package. However, objects belonging to these classes are not intended for transport and are treated as local objects. When creating such a class, the system does not assign a transport layer. If in any case you want to transport objects belonging to those classes, you have two options: special transport as copies or modify the TADIR entry for the object.
  • Packages beginning with A-S or U-X are for SAP standard objects, and customers cannot create repository objects within them. If you make any changes in objects within these packages (repairs), changes are maintained with the transport system and can be transported.
  • Finally, you can have packages beginning with a namespace prefix, which you can reserve through the OSS. These packages and the objects are considered just as customer objects and can be transported across systems. Every time a new object is created by a developer, it must be assigned to a package. Actually, the ABAP workbench requests that the user enter the package as soon as the Create Object Catalog Entry dialog box appears, as shown in Figure. This information is automatically entered in the TADIR table, which is the catalog for the SAP repository objects.

Packages can also be the entry point for navigating through the Object Navigator (transaction SE80). Note Be extremely careful when modifying the catalog entry for a particular object because the catalog entry can cause inconsistencies in the system. Follow SAP Notes or the instructions of SAP specialists.

Configuration of the Transport System

The process of configuring from scratch the transport system for a group of SAP systems includes the following activities:

  1. Initializing the Change and Transport Organizer
  2. Setting up the transport directory and the tp program
  3. Configuring the TMS, which includes
    a. Configuring the transport domain controller
    b. Adding systems
    c. Setting up system groups (if extended transport control enabled)
    d. Configuring the transport routes
  4. Setting the System Change option

When configuring a group of related SAP systems in which the customization, development, and transport systems are organized, there is some information you must know beforehand. This information is basic system landscape design information and involves the following:

  • Which systems are in the group and what their roles are: production, testing, development, other
  • What clients will be created and with what purpose
  • Which objects can be modified in the systems
  • What will be transported and what the transport routes are
  • Whether recipients' systems will be defined to receive transports when these have been imported into consolidation systems

The next sections explain the most important configuration settings for each of these activities.

Step 1. Initializing the Change and Transport Organizer

This initialization is known as installation follow-up work or processing after installation because it has to be performed as one of the first activities after the R/3 installation is finished.

This step is accomplished by executing transaction SE06 (Postinstallation Actions for Transport Organizer).

Transaction SE06

Transaction SE06

This transaction initializes the basic settings for the CTO and distinguishes whether this SAP system was created from a standard installation or from a copy of an existing system. It can only be executed once. On the SE06 screen, specify how the system was installed and click on the Execute pushbutton (Perform Post-Installation Actions). When Standard Installation is selected, the system assumes that it has been installed using the standard SAP software kits. In this case the program will initialize some basic CTO tables, and there is no need to adjust requests or repairs, because no changes exist. This option should not be used if the system was originated from a copy, because the option will create many problems with the Change and Transport Organizer when transports or even upgrades are performed.

When the selection is Database Copy or Database Migration, it means that the SAP system has been created from a copy. In this case it is very important that the system name does not match any other system name within the SAP system group. Systems coming from copies are normally assigned a different role within a group of SAP systems. When this option is executed, the system will request the name of the source system and will ask whether the objects are to be kept as original (new role) or changed to the new system (assuming role from copied system).

Step 2. Setting Up the Transport Directory and the tp Program (TPPARAM)

This second step consists of ensuring that the transport directory (/usr/sap/trans) is shared among a SAP system group. All systems taking part in the group are included in the global configuration file TPPARAM (transport parameter file), located under the bin subdirectory of /usr/sap/trans. You must edit this file and make sure all systems have a corresponding entry. If a system is missing, copy another systems entry and change the values (for instance, the parameter <SID>/ dbhost = <hostname>).

The transport directory can be shared using NFS on UNIX systems, or using file shares and the alias SAPTRANSHOST or SAPGLOBALHOST on Windows NT systems. The installation program creates the transport directories and subdirectories with the needed files, including an initial configuration or a template TPPARAM file. This file must be correctly configured for the transport control program tp to function properly. Additional information about the tp program and TPPARAM is included in the following sections of this chapter.

Step 3. Configuring the Transport Management System (TMS)

One of the main functions of the TMS is to create a central system for global transport system configuration and administration. This is achieved using RFC communications between SAP systems. The first time a SAP system group is being installed, one of the systems must be set as transport domain controller. To do this, log on to the SAP system to be the transport domain controller in client 000, and enter transaction code STMS (Tools | Administration | Transports | Transport Management System). If there is no domain controller, the system automatically prompts you to create one. It will generate RFC destinations and the TMSADM user, which is used for establishing the communication.

Now you have to include the other SAP systems. The easiest and most automatic way to do this is to log on to each of the SAP systems and run transaction STMS from client 000. If the transport directory is shared, the systems will automatically join the transport domain. Once they join, from the domain controller, select the new system and from the menu select SAP System | Approve. Finally, distribute the TMS configuration to all systems in the group by selecting Extras | Distribute and Activate Configuration. Once the systems are configured, the transport routes must be set up to establish consolidation and delivery routes.

In regular three-system landscapes, the easiest way is to select a standard configuration. This can be done by first entering the SAP systems and then back in the STMS main screen selecting Overview | Transport Routes and then Configuration | Standard Configuration. In this case the TMS will request the role of each of the defined systems and set up the transport layer and transport routes for each. For nonstandard configurations or complex system landscapes, this process must be performed manually.

Step 4. Setting the System Change Option and the Client Settings

Client settings and System Change options define the parts of the system that can be modified and automatically recorded by the organizers. Basically, both configurations must allow changes to take place and must be linked with the Workbench or Customizing Organizers. System Change options are explained in a previous section.

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