The information contained in the SAP systems, and thus in the database, can be classified in two groups:
The client-dependent data are treated by the SAP system in their own special form. When a user is logged on in a SAP session in a particular client, the user is only able to see data that belong to that client or data that are client independent. The way SAP internally implements this is by having the client field as a key field in the records that belong to tables that are client dependent. An easy way to test this is by accessing directly with the database tools and doing an SQL select statement in one of those tables. There are a few thousand tables that are client dependent. These tables always include the client field (known as MANDT although the name can be different) as part of the primary key. This field always has table T000 (the clients table) as a check table.
Internally, the underlying SAP database system, like in the preceding example, does not know about the limits imposed by the client within the SAP system. However, the ABAP Open SQL statements normally only know about the client in which the users are logged on. The client concept allows for having several work environments within the same SID. These work environments are treated as different business entities, although they are often used for testing, demo, training, different customizing modules, and so on, which makes it very normal to find several clients under the same SAP system. The SAP system, as was introduced in previous chapters, includes three standard clients from the standard installation: clients 000, 001, and 066. In new installations, there are two standard clients 000 and 066.
Client 000 is the reference client with a complete society model and with sample data. SAP recommends not working in this client for productive purposes, except for those administrative tasks that are performed in client 000.Client 001 is a copy of client 000, which customers can use to start the customizing work or use also as a reference client. Client 066 is a special client used by the SAP service personnel to perform the preventive maintenance service, EarlyWatch. Apart from the standard SAP clients, customers can create their own, as many as they consider necessary.
Pay attention, however, to the storage needed for having too many clients. The SAP system includes functions for creating, copying, and deleting clients, as well as the necessary options to access the client data without altering the consistency or integrity of the database. It's important to use the SAP-provided functions for managing clients and not to perform them with database utilities because there is a high risk of creating inconsistencies in the system. Right after installation, to start working with the SAP system, one of the first post installation steps is to create a new client. When the client is initially created it contains no data.
From this newly empty client, administrators have to decide whether to fully copy another client into it or copy just parts. Initially, your reference clients for copying are the SAP standards. Then when your installation has more clients, the source client for the copy can be any of the existing ones in the system. The next section explains the functions that SAP makes available for doing client copy management functions.
Client Copy Tools
The system includes five tools to perform client copy functions. All these tools are available from the Tools | Administration | Administration | Client Administration menu. Figure contains the menu tree client administration. Options under this menu are as follows:
Client administration options
The main options for client copy and maintenance are explained in the following sections.
Creating a New Client
To create a new client for being the target of a client copy, you first have to define that client. The client definition is performed by selecting Administration | Client Administration | Client Maintenance from the initial administration menu or, alternatively, by entering SCC4 transaction code in the command field. The system displays the client table, T000. In this table you can define additional clients or modify the information of the already-defined clients. If the table is in display-only mode, click on the Display/Change icon to set the table to maintenance mode. The system displays a message warning that you are going to update a table that is client independent and will show the Client table overview.
Client table T000
To create a new client, click on the New Entries button. You get a screen like the one.
Defining a new system client
On that screen, you must enter the client number in the corresponding required input field. Enter a descriptive text and other optional information in the available fields. When your input is complete, click on the Save button to save the new entry.
Changes and Transports for Client-Specific Objects
When creating new clients, there are four options to consider for client-dependent objects according to the possibility of changing client customization and possible transport to another clients or systems. These options are as follows:
Cross-Client Object Changes
This setting establishes which clients are authorized to perform maintenance of clientindependent data. The fact that cross-client or client-independent data exists and is common to all existing clients means that a change in any of this data affects all system clients. Cross-client data include all repository objects (programs, table definitions, screens, and so on) as well as some common types of client customizing.
Four possible options for this setting are as follows:
Protection: Client Copier and Comparison Tool
This option is a security measure used for avoiding undesired client copies or client overwriting and for prohibiting access for the purpose of comparing customization settings with those of other external clients. The three options are as follows:
This should be the standard setting for productive clients.
Client definition can additionally include several special restrictions:
Requirements for Creating Clients and for the Copy Process
When creating new clients there are some requirements that must be considered. One of the main factors is the storage requirement. Creating a new client is like creating a new structure inside the database. So, before actually creating and copying the client, you should ensure there is enough space for it. This can be done by executing a client copy in test mode, which outputs the database space requirements for the new client in the copy log. SAP recommends at least 500 MB of free space for a client with no application data.
Other restrictions that apply during a client copy process are as follows:
When users need to create and export object lists for a client export, the following authorization also might be required:
As the system superuser, SAP* has all the needed privileges to launch a client copy. SAP recommends performing the operation with SAP* or with a self-defined superuser having all the system access privileges. Be careful when copying a source client over an existing client, because the process will first delete all the tables' contents in the target client before importing the new data from the source client. If the source client includes very large tables, it can result in long runtimes and also there is the risk of rollback segments overflow. When possible, enlarge rollback segments before performing a client copy.
When copying clients between different SAP systems, copy only the client-dependent tables. Copying cross-client (client-independent) tables can only be performed when the target system has not been customized yet; otherwise, the copy process will overwrite the existing tables and this might leave the target client in an inconsistent state. Depending on how—what is copied—the client copy is performed, you must watch out for the system number ranges. SAP distinguishes three different situations:
According to the table and table class selection, these are selected based on delivery class. This setting determines whether the entire table or only part of it (the clientdependent part) is copied. You can see it on transaction SE11, then select the table name and Delivery and Maintenance tag. The Delivery class field shows this table attribute. All customizing tables will be copied except those with the following delivery classes
Copying a Client in the Same System
Copying a client requires the following steps that we will explain further in detail. You should check and restrain users from actually logging into the system:
When you have defined a new client as indicated in the previous section, you can automatically log on to the new client with user ID SAP* and password PASS. Once logged on in the target client, from the main menu, select Tools | Administration | Administration | Client Administration | Client Copy | Local Copy or, alternatively, enter transaction code SCCL in the command field.
In the Selected Profile input field, you have to enter a profile that tells the function what to copy. The SAP system includes a group of predefined profiles. Click on the possible entries list arrow to display a list of the available copy profiles.
Entries list for copy profiles
If you want to copy the whole client, including users, customizing, master, and transaction data, select the SAP_ALL profile.If the profile selected includes user master data, enter the source client for the user master in the Source Client User Masters field. In the Source Client input field, enter the source client for the copy. It is advisable to perform a test run before the real execution of the copy. The test run informs you about storage requirements and possible problems when copying clients. Finally, you have to execute the copy. Depending on the chosen copy profile, these functions can take a considerable amount of time. Therefore, it is recommended to execute the client copy functions in the background. You should only execute them online when copying users' master data only.
There are several possibilities in the SAP Web Application Sever systems for deleting a whole client. The first one is by using the standard Client Delete transaction, SCC5. Log on in the client to be deleted and make sure no users are logged on to this client. Then, from the main menu, select Tools | Administration | Administration | Client Administration | Special functions | Delete Client or enter transaction code SCC5 in the command field. This function also gives you the possibility of specifying whether you also want to delete the entry from the client table T000. You can execute this function online or launch it in the background. You can check the client deletion process by looking at the log with transaction SCC3.
Deleting a Client with R3trans
Clients can also be deleted using the R3trans programs, which can be the fastest way. For example, suppose that the SAP system name is TT1 and the client to delete is 010. To delete this client, log on at the operating system level as user tt1adm and access the /usr/sap/trans/bin directory (i.e., cd/usr/sap/trans/bin). Using a standard editor, create a control file, for example, delcli.ctl, with the following text:clientremove
where 010 is the client number to be deleted. Save the file and execute the command:R3trans -w delcli.log -u 1 delcli.ctl
Status after Deletion
After deleting a client, the space is not automatically freed from the database, although these free areas can be filled up with new data. When a client has been deleted and a new client is created and then copied, the space that was freed can be reused by the new client. To restore the free space immediately after a client delete, you should perform a database reorganization. This is only recommended in cases where the deleted client had a lot of data and you don't expect to reuse that space. And also in case, for performance reasons, you want to fill up the gaps left for the deleted data.
Client Copy Logs
Any of the client copy functions generate a log file that can be displayed by using transaction SCC3. From the administration initial menu, select Administration | Client Administration | Copy Logs. The system displays a list with the target clients for the copies, number of runs, and date of last run, and a short status text. From the initial screen you can select the copy log you want to display and navigate to see the full details of a copy process. To do this, double-click on the needed client line. The system displays the list of logs. Select one to display the client copy log analysis. Then to display the details or the full file copy log, select Choose from the application toolbar. In the next screen, you can select the Details or the File Log.
Restarting a Client Copy Process
If for any reason (such as database storage problems) the copying process has been canceled, when trying to reexecute the same copy process, the system allows you to restart the copy at the point where it was previously terminated, using the same parameters as before. The client copy programs use the client copy control flow table, CCCFLOW, which includes checkpoints. When you are presented with the option of restarting the copy process but you don't want to use the restart option, select the NEWSTART option.
Transporting Clients between Two SAP Systems
This process can be useful in cases where there is no direct network connection between two systems; otherwise, a remote copy is preferable. For example, suppose you want to copy client 005 from a source system TT1 to target system DD1 The target client can be 005 or any other client. If the client does not exist in the target system, DD1, first log on to the target system in any existing client and create the new client by using the standard function, for example, Tools | Administration | Administration | Client Administration | Client Maintenance. If the client already exists in the target system, you should first delete it. Refer to the previous section on deleting clients.
Log on in the source system in the client you want to copy (to export). In this example, system TT1 and client 005. Enter transaction SCC8 in the command field or, alternatively, select Administration | Client Administration | Client Transport | Client Export from the initial administration menu. Enter the same copy profile as you would in a normal copy procedure between clients in the same system. You must select what you wish to transport by using one of the existing copy profiles, as shown in Figure 9-10. Copy profile management is explained in the next section. Execute the copy in the background.
When the export is finished, and depending on the chosen copy profile, you get the following transport requests:
where TT1 is the SID and <nnnnnn> is a system-generated transport number. Now you have to import those transport files manually using the Transport Management system in the target system. After importing the KO and KT, you have to run transaction SCC7 in the target system for the import postprocessing, in which text files are automatically imported. Check the transport log for errors. Because client transports and export/import options vary between different releases of the Basis system and the WAS, please refer to the latest version of SAP Note 70547 for updated information and known problems.
Copying Individual Tables Entries between Clients
In addition to the previous functions and transactions used when performing client copy functions and the associated reports, SAP provides additional reports that can be very useful when managing information among system clients. You can use transaction SCC1, which allows you to "transport" an object list from a source client to the current logon client. Watch out with certain restrictions for long tables, and refer to SAP Note 45796.
Other possibilities for copying individual table entries between clients include, for example, programming in ABAP the transfer of the data to a file and then loading that file on to the target client. And finally, you could transport the table contents by creating a transportable change request and entering the table contents in the transport editor. For table contents, use the R3TR TABU <table name> option. However, you should avoid using these last two options, which can cause inconsistencies in the system data.
Copying Tables Entries between Two Different Systems
There are several ways to copy table entries between two different SAP systems. One of the most efficient is by using the R3trans utility. The tp program could also be used; however, the transport control program tp performs many additional checks and imposes some restrictions on the table types to be transported. For example, assume that, after a client copy between two SAP systems, a table content could not be completely copied to the target system (import phase) because the table reached the maximum number of extents in the underlying database. You can avoid having to perform a whole import again by transporting a single table with R3trans. The general procedure to do this is as follows:
Example of Copying Table Entries between Clients and Systems
The following example shows the copying process of the contents of a table from the client 002 in system C12 to client 010 in system T12. After verifying the client copy log, due to some storage problems in table MOFF, this table could not be completely copied. To avoid having to perform the whole client copy process, just the entries on table MOFF from the source client will be copied to the table MOFF on the target client 010 in the target system T12.
The R3trans syntax and options are discussed in Chapter. While the -w flag indicates the log file, the -u flag sets unconditional modes for the transport. In the export phase, unconditional mode 1 indicates the system to ignore the wrong status of transport requests. Mode 8 allows direct selection of tables when the default modes are not allowed.
By default, the previous command generates the data file trans.dat in the directory where the export has been executed. If both source and target systems share the transport directory, it won't be necessary to copy the trans.dat file. Otherwise, you must use available tools for file transfer, for example, ftp.
The unconditional modes used in the import phase are 2 for enabling the overwriting of the original; 4, which ignores that the transport request was intended for a different target system; and 8, which allows for importing tables that are restricted by their table types.
If you use the default options for the import, you do not need a control file. The import can be performed directly with R3trans -i <file>.
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Sap Basis Tutorial
Sap: From Sap R/3 To Sap Netweaver
The Architecture Of The Sap Web Application Server
Sap Netweaver: An Overview
Using Sap Systems
Upgrading To Sap R/3 Enterprise: The First Step Into Sap Netweaver
The Change And Transport System
Development Options With Sap Solutions: Abap Engine
User Management And Security In Sap Environments
Web Application Server System Management
Performance And Troubleshooting With Sap Solutions
Sap For It Managers: Implementation, Planning, Operation, And Support Of Sap Systems
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