Radware Interview Questions & Answers

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Radware Interview Questions & Answers

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Radware Interview Questions

Radware Interview Questions
    1. Question 1. What Is Radware?

      Answer :

      RadWare is a powerful, user-friendly software package for interactive graphical analysis of gamma-ray coincidence data. It is used by many physicists around the world as they study the structure of the atomic nucleus and analyze the results of their experiments.

    2. Question 2. What Programs Come In The Radware Package?

      Answer :

      A few of the more commonly-used RadWare programs are:

      gf3, a general spectrum manipulation, fitting and analysis program (for one-dimensional spectra).

      escl8r, a very powerful program for examining, interpreting and fitting gamma-gamma coincidence matrices (i.e. two-dimensional spectra) and deducing level schemes of excited states of nuclei.

      levit8r and 4dg8r, three- and four-dimensional versions of escl8r. These programs are tools for analyzing triple-gamma and quadruple-gamma coincidences, respectively. To give you some idea of the quantities of data involved, 4dg8r can examine hypercubes of up to 40 billion channels, piece-wise compressed on disk to take a space of anywhere from 200MB to several tens of GB.

      Each of the above programs has at least two versions with different user interfaces; gf3, xmgf3 and gf3x; escl8r and xmesc; levit8r and xmlev; and 4dg8r and xm4dg.

      Other programs are: 4play, addmat, algndiag, branch, calib_ascii, combine, divide, dixie_gls, drawstr_ps, effit, encal, energy, escl8r, ex_diff, foldout, gls, gls_conv, incub8r, legft, lufwhm, make4cub, pedit, plot, plot2ps, pro3d, pro4d, pslice, rdm, rdmfit, sdgen, split4cub, slice, Source, spec_ascii, statft, subbgm2, subbgmat, symmat, unfold, unix2unix, vms2unix, win2tab and xmgls.

      A partial list of the files included in the RadWare distribution is given here. There are lots of demo*, *.hlp and *.txt files that you might like to peruse. All the command-driven programs have internal help available; typing HELP from inside a program will usually bring at least a hint of what you can try.

    3. Question 3. Where Do I Get Radware?

      Answer :

      You can get the latest versions of RadWare (currently rw99) for unix and VMS via anonymous ftp. Just follow the links given here. Or you can just ftp to radware.phy.ornl.gov, log on as user ftp, and cd to pub/radware/unix or pub/radware/vms. Then get README and follow the instructions therein.

    4. Question 4. How Do I Install It?

      Answer :

      Follow the instructions given in the README files. You can get them here:

      README file for unix

      README file for VMS

    5. Question 5. How Do I Upgrade From An Earlier Release?

      Answer :

      Just reinstall everything as if it was the first time. You may want to keep some of your old files; for example, your old Makefile and the .PAR or .h files.

    6. Question 6. How Do I Use Gf3?

      Answer :

      Here is a gf3 help file (in html).

    7. Question 7. How Do I Exit?

      Answer :

      Use the ST command.

    8. Question 8. How Do I Make An Energy Calibration (.aca/.cal) File?

      Answer :

      See the above instructions for making .sto and .sin files with gf3 and Source, and then run the program encal. Alternatively, if you know the energy calibration coefficients, you can create an ASCII version of the .cal file, an .aca file, being sure to use the correct formatting of the fields. You can use a copy of demo/demo.aca as a starting point.

    9. Question 9. How Do I Make A Lookup Table (.tab) File?

      Answer :

      The answer to this depends on what you want the .tab file for.

      For incub8r / levit8r, or 4play / 4dg8r, where you want a lookup-table that does a possibly non-linear mapping of ADC channels (for the data on tape) to (hyper)cube channels, then the simplest solution is to use the program lufwhm. You will need to have some idea of the range of ADC channels that you wish to include in your cube. If you wish to use nonlinear gains, you should also have some idea of how the width (FWHM) of the peaks varies with energy; you will need to specify this in terms of parameters like those used to define the starting width in gf3, see gf3.hlp or the escl8r/levit8r NIM paper for details. If you do not want to use nonlinear gains, you can simply enter 

      1, 0, 0

      as the FWHM parameters, to pretend that you have a constant FWHM of 1 channel.

      Lookup-table files can be used for other purposes, however; for example, they are very useful in scanning tapes for setting gates on your raw Ge energies to select certain reaction products or bands for selective analysis. It was for this application that the .tab file format was first developed. They can be easily created in gf3 by using the LU and WI commands. You can also display the windows in any .tab file, including those from lufwhm, by using the DW command.

    10. Question 10. How Do I Use Escl8r/levit8r/4dg8r?

      Answer :

      Here are html-ised versions of my NIM papers on 

      ESCL8R and LEVIT8R: Software for interactive graphical analysis of HPGe coincidence data sets (D.C. Radford, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A361(1995)297)  and 

      Background subtraction from in-beam HPGe coincidence data sets (D.C. Radford, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A361(1995)306)

    11. Question 11. How Do I Make A Background Spectrum For Escl8r?

      Answer :

      Use gf3 and read in the projection. Then use the BG command (auto BackGround) to create a back ground spectrum under the peaks. Or use SC (Set Counts) to draw a background spectrum by hand, by cutting off the peaks. When you're finished, write the modified spectrum out as the background spectrum. I generally leave the X-rays in as background. I also sometimes put in (n, n' gamma) peaks/shoulders, though this is not necessary especially for a first stab.

    12. Question 12. Are The Spectra Corrected For Efficiency?

      Answer :

      Escl8r and levit8r can write gf3-style .spe files. These spectra are not corrected for the efficiency. You can correct for efficiency in gf3 with the DE command. The spectra as displayed in escl8r / levit8r are not corrected for efficiency, either; rather, the calculated spectrum has the efficiency built into it.

    13. Question 13. Why Can't I See The Gammas I Added To The Top Of My Level Scheme?

      Answer :

      When you keep adding levels and gammas into the level scheme window, the level scheme will eventually go off the top of the level scheme graphics window, and you will not be able to see the top of the level scheme. When this happens, you need to use the RD1 command, or select "redraw entire level scheme" from the display menu. It will recalculate the level scheme limits and redraw.

    14. Question 14. How Do I Make A Background Spectrum For Levit8r?

      Answer :

      First create a 1D projection from the cube using pro3d. Then, in gf3, divide the projection with the "compression spectrum" width.spe from lufwhm, and create a background spectrum using BG or SC in gf3, as described above for escl8r. Finally, multiply this background spectrum with width.spe, which gives the final background spectrum that should be used as input to levit8r. Save this spectrum with the WS command.

    15. Question 15. How Do I Use The E2-enhanced Background Subtraction In Escl8r?

      Answer :

      To make use of the E2-enhanced background, you need to have the original symmetrized matrix. Call up gf3, read in the total projection, and use the SL and WI commands to create a .win file for slice, containing one or more wide gates on the E2-bump region of the spectrum. Depending on the nucleus, this is usually in the region of 1.1 to 1.6 MeV, but you should also be guided by the observed E2-bump problems in your esc l8r gates. You don't need to worry about small peaks in the gate(s), but try to exclude large peaks.

      Then exit from gf3, and use slice to take an x-projected gate on the matrix, summing all of the windows in your .win file. Keep the .win file for use later in escl8r. In gf3 again, read in the summed gate and draw a background under it with the BG or SC commands, just as you did for the total projection. Save this background spectrum.

      Now in escl8r, use the CB (Change 2D Background) command to put in the new background, as in the following example:

              Change background? (Y/N)y

              Use enhanced background from E2-bump gates? (Y/N)y

               Total projection spectrum file name = ?hfs

                  E2 projection spectrum file name = ?hfe2

               Total background spectrum file name = ?hfb

                  E2 background spectrum file name = ?hfe2b

               Default value for factor 1 is    10.43896

               Factor 1 = ? (rtn for default)

               E2 gate file = ? (default .EXT = .win)hfe2

               Default value for factor 2 is    61194.43

               Factor 2 = ? (rtn for default)

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