Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program, which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal of the TPM program is to markedly increase production while, at the same time, increasing employee morale and job satisfaction. It can be considered as the medical science of machines.
TPM brings maintenance into focus as a necessary and vitally important part of the business. It is no longer regarded as a non-profit activity. Downtime for maintenance is scheduled as a part of the manufacturing day and, in some cases, as an integral part of the manufacturing process. The goal is to hold emergency and unscheduled maintenance to a minimum.
TPM was introduced to achieve the following objectives. The important ones are listed below.
Similarities and Differences between TQM and TPM
The TPM program closely resembles the popular Total Quality Management (TQM) program. Many of the tools such as, employee empowerment, benchmarking, documentation, etc. used in TQM are used to implement and optimize TPM. Following are the similarities between the two:
The differences between TQM and TPM are summarized below.
Pillars of TPM
TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems. Making problems visible is the first step of improvement.
This means sorting and organizing the items as critical, important, frequently used items, useless, or items that are not need as of now. Unwanted items can be salvaged. Critical items should be kept for use nearby and items that are not be used in near future, should be stored in some place. For this step, the worth of the item should be decided based on utility and not cost. As a result of this step, the search time is reduced.
The concept here is that “Each item has a place and only one place”. The items should be placed back after usage at the same place. To identify items easily, name plates and colored tags has to be used. Vertical racks can be used for this purpose, and heavy items occupy the bottom position in the racks.
SEISO—Shine the Workplace
This involves cleaning the work place free of burrs, grease, oil, waste, scrap etc. No loosely hanging wires or oil leakage from machines.
Employees has to discuss together and decide on standards for keeping the work place/machines/pathways neat and clean. These standards are implemented for whole organization and are tested/inspected randomly.
Considering 5S as a way of life and bring about self-discipline among the employees of the organization. This includes wearing badges, following work procedures, punctuality, dedication to the organization etc.
PILLAR 2—JISHU HOZEN (AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE)
This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating.
Steps in JISHU HOZEN
‘Kai’ means change, and ‘Zen’ means good (for the better). Basically Kaizen is for small improvements, but carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the organization. Kaizen is opposite to big spectacular innovations. Kaizen requires no or little investment. The principle behind is that “a very large number of small improvements are more effective in an organizational environment than a few improvements of large value.” This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using various Kaizen tools. These activities are not limited to production areas and can be implemented in administrative areas as well.
Achieve and sustain zero loses with respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30% manufacturing cost reduction.
Tools used in Kaizen
The objective of TPM is maximization of equipment effectiveness. TPM aims at maximization of machine utilization and not merely machine availability maximization. As one of the pillars of TPM activities, Kaizen pursues efficient equipment, operator and material and energy utilization, which is extremes of productivity and aims at achieving substantial effects. Kaizen activities try to thoroughly eliminate 16 major losses.
16 Major Losses in an Organization
PILLAR 4—PLANNED MAINTENANCE
It is aimed to have trouble free machines and equipments producing defect free products for total customer satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 ‘families’ or groups, which was defined earlier.
With planned maintenance, we evolve our efforts from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain their equipment.
Six Steps in Planned Maintenance
PILLAR 5—QUALITY MAINTENANCE
It is aimed towards customer delight through highest quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much like Focused Improvement.
We gain understanding of what parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to eliminate current quality concerns, then move to potential quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive (Quality Control to Quality Assurance).
QM activities is to set equipment conditions that preclude quality defects, based on the basic concept of maintaining perfect equipment to maintain perfect quality of products. The conditions are checked and measure in time series to very that measure values are within standard values to prevent defects. The transition of measured values is watched to predict possibilities of defects occurring and to take counter measures before hand.
Quality defects are classified as customer end defects and in house defects. For customer- end data, we have to get data on:
In-house, data include data related to products and data related to process.
Data Related to Product
Data Related to Processes
It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come to work and perform all required functions effectively and independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade their skill. It is not sufficient know only ‘Know-How’ by they should also learn ‘Know-Why’. By experience they gain, ‘Know-How’ to overcome a problem what to be done. This they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and why they are doing so. Hence, it becomes necessary to train them on knowing ‘Know-Why’. The employees should be trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create a factory full of experts. The different phase of skills is:
Phase 1: Do not know.
Phase 2: Know the theory but cannot do.
Phase 3: Can do but cannot teach.
Phase 4: Can do and also teach.
Steps in Educating and Training Activities
PILLAR 7—OFFICE TPM
Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM, PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses. They are:
Office TPM and its Benefits
PILLAR 8—SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT
In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the other pillars on a regular basis.
A committee is constituted for this pillar, which comprises representative of officers as well as workers. The committee is headed by senior vice President (Technical). Utmost importance to safety is given in the plant. Manager (safety) is looking after functions related to safety. To create awareness among employees various competitions like safety slogans, quiz, drama, posters, etc. related to safety can be organized at regular intervals.
Today, with competition in industry at an all time high, TPM may be the only thing that stands between success and total failure for some companies. It has been proven to be a program that works. It can be adapted to work not only in industrial plants, but also in construction, building maintenance, transportation, and in a variety of other situations. Employees must be educated and convinced that TPM is not just another ‘program of the month’ and that management is totally committed to the program and the extended time frame necessary for full implementation. If everyone involved in a TPM program does his or her part, an unusually high rate of return compared to resources invested may be expected.
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