The production system of an organization is that part, which produces products of an organization. It is that activity whereby resources, flowing within a defined system, are combined and transformed in a controlled manner to add value in accordance with the policies communicated by management. A simplified production system is shown above.The production system has the following characteristics:
Classification of Production System
Production systems can be classified as Job Shop, Batch, Mass and Continuous Production systems.
Classification of production systems
JOB SHOP PRODUCTION
Job shop production are characterized by manufacturing of one or few quantity of products designed and produced as per the specification of customers within prefixed time and cost. The distinguishing feature of this is low volume and high variety of products.
A job shop comprises of general purpose machines arranged into different departments. Each job demands unique technological requirements, demands processing on machines in a certain sequence.
The Job-shop production system is followed when there is:
Following are the advantages of job shop production:
Following are the limitations of job shop production:
Batch production is defined by American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS) “as a form of manufacturing in which the job passes through the functional departments in lots or batches and each lot may have a different routing.”It is characterized by the manufacture of limited number of products produced at regular intervals and stocked awaiting sales.
Batch production system is used under the following circumstances:
Following are the advantages of batch production:
Following are the limitations of batch production:
Manufacture of discrete parts or assemblies using a continuous process are called mass production. This production system is justified by very large volume of production. The machines are arranged in a line or product layout. Product and process standardization exists and all outputs follow the same path.
Mass production is used under the following circumstances:
Following are the advantages of mass production:
Following are the limitations of mass production:
Production facilities are arranged as per the sequence of production operations from the first operations to the finished product. The items are made to flow through the sequence of operations through material handling devices such as conveyors, transfer devices, etc.
Continuous production is used under the following circumstances:
Following are the advantages of continuous production:
Following are the limitations of continuous production:
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