The following are the most important physical facilities to be organized:
Following factors are considered for an Industrial Building:
Advantages of single-storey building are:
Single-storey buildings suffer from some limitations. These are:
When constructed for industrial use, multi-storey buildings offer the following advantages:
Following are the disadvantages of multi-storey building:
In principle, lighting should be adapted to the type of work. However, the level of illumination, measured in should be increased not only in relation to the degree of precision or miniaturization of the work but also in relation to the worker’s age. The accumulation of dust and the wear of the light sources cut down the level of illumination by 10–50 per cent of the original level. This gradual drop in the level should therefore be compensated for when designing the lighting system. Regular cleaning of lighting fixture is obviously essential.
Excessive contrasts in lighting levels between the worker’s task and the general surroundings should also be avoided. The use of natural light should be encouraged. This can be achieved by installing windows that open, which are recommended to have an area equal to the time of day, the distance of workstations from the windows and the presence or absence of blinds. For this reason it is essential to have artificial lighting, will enable people to maintain proper vision and will ensure that the lighting intensity ratios between the task, the surrounding objects and the general environment are maintained.
CONTROL OF LIGHTING
In order to make the best use of lighting in the work place, the following points should be taken into account:
This human body functions in such a way as to keep the central nervous system and the internal organs at a constant temperature. It maintains the necessary thermal balance by continuous heat exchange with the environment. It is essential to avoid excessive hear or cold, and wherever possible to keep the climatic conditions optimal so that the body can maintain a thermal balance.
WORKING IN A HOT ENVIRONMENT
Hot working environments are found almost everywhere. Work premise in tropical countries may, on account of general climatic conditions, be naturally hot. When source of heat such as furnaces, kilns or hot processes are present, or when the physical workload is heavy, the human body may also have to deal with excess heat. It should be noted that in such hot working environments sweating is almost the only way in which the body can lose heat. As the sweat evaporates, the body cools. There is a relationship between the amount and speed of evaporation and a feeling of comfort. The more intense the evaporation, the quicker the body will cool and feel refreshed. Evaporation increases with adequate ventilation.
WORKING IN A COLD ENVIRONMENT
Working in cold environments was once restricted to non-tropical or highly elevated regions. Now as a result of modern refrigeration, various groups of workers, even in tropical countries, are exposed to a cold environment.
Exposure to cold for short periods of time can produce serious effects, especially when workers are exposed to temperatures below 10°C The loss of body heat is uncomfortable and quickly affects work efficiency. Workers in cold climates and refrigerated premises should be well protected against the cold by wearing suitable clothes, including footwear, gloves and, most importantly, a hat. Normally, dressing in layers traps dead air and serves as an insulation layer, thus keeping the worker warmer.
CONTROL OF THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
There are many ways of controlling the thermal environment. It is relatively easy to assess the effects of thermal conditions, especially when excessive heat or cold is an obvious problem. To solve the problem, however, consistent efforts using a variety of available measures are usually necessary. This is because the problem is linked with the general climate, which greatly affects the workplace climate, production technology, which is often the source of heat or cold and varying conditions of the work premises as well as work methods and schedules. Personal factors such as clothing, nutrition, personal habits, and age and individual differences in response to the given thermal conditions also need to be taken into account in the attempt to attain the thermal comfort of workers.
In controlling the thermal environment, one or more of the following principles may be applied:
Ventilation differs from air circulation. Ventilation replaces contaminated air by fresh air, whereas as the air-circulation merely moves the air without renewing it. Where the air temperature and humidity are high, merely to circulate the air is not only ineffective but also increases heat absorption. Ventilation disperses the heat generated by machines and people at work. Adequate ventilation should be looked upon as an important factor in maintaining the worker’s health and productivity.
Except for confined spaces, all working premises have some minimum ventilation. However, to ensure the necessary air flow (which should not be lower than 50 cubic meters of air per hour per worker), air usually needs to be changed between four to eight times per hour in offices or for sedentary workers, between eight and 12 times per hour in workshops and as much as 15 to 30 or more times per hour for public premises and where there are high levels of atmospheric pollution or humidity. The air speed used for workplace ventilation should be adapted to the air temperature and the energy expenditure: for sedentary work it should exceed 0.2 meter per second, but for a hot environment the optimum speed is between 0.5 and 1 meter per second. For hazardous work it may be even higher. Certain types of hot work can be made tolerable by directing a stream of cold air at the workers.
Natural ventilation, obtained by opening windows or wall or roof air vents, may produce significant air flows but can normally be used only in relatively mild climates. The effectiveness of this type of ventilation depends largely on external conditions. Where natural ventilation is inadequate, artificial ventilation should be used. A choice may be made between a blown-air system, an exhaust air system or a combination of both (‘push-pull’ ventilation). Only ‘push-pull’ ventilation systems allow for better regulation of air movement.
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