OPERATING SYSTEM - Production and Operations Management

Operating System Operations

Operating system converts inputs in order to provide outputs which are required by a customer. It converts physical resources into outputs, the function of which is to satisfy customer wants i.e., to provide some utility for the customer. In some of the organization the product is a physical good (hotels) while in others it is a service (hospitals). Bus and taxi services, tailors, hospital and builders are the examples of an operating system.

Everett E. Adam & Ronald J. Ebert define operating system as, “An operating system (function) of an organization is the part of an organization that produces the organization’s physical goods and services.”Ray Wild defines operating system as, “An operating system is a configuration of resources combined for the provision of goods or services.”

Concept of Operations
An operation is defined in terms of the mission it serves for the organization, technology it employs and the human and managerial processes it involves. Operations in an organization can be categorized into manufacturing operations and service operations. Manufacturing operations is a conversion process that includes manufacturing yields a tangible output: a product, whereas, a conversion process that includes service yields an intangible output: a deed, a performance, an effort.

Distinction between Manufacturing Operations and Service Operations
Following characteristics can be considered for distinguishing manufacturing operations with service operations:

  1. Tangible/Intangible nature of output
  2. Consumption of output
  3. Nature of work (job)
  4. Degree of customer contact
  5. Customer participation in conversion
  6. Measurement of performance.

Manufacturing is characterized by tangible outputs (products), outputs that customers consume overtime, jobs that use less labor and more equipment, little customer contact, no customer participation in the conversion process (in production), and sophisticated methods for measuring production activities and resource consumption as product are made.

Service is characterized by intangible outputs, outputs that customers consumes immediately, jobs that use more labor and less equipment, direct consumer contact, frequent customer participation in the conversion process, and elementary methods for measuring conversion activities and resource consumption. Some services are equipment based namely rail-road services, telephone services and some are people based namely tax consultant services, hair styling.


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Production and Operations Management Topics