In product layout, equipment or departments are dedicated to a particular product line, duplicate equipment is employed to avoid backtracking, and a straight-line flow of material movement is achievable. Adopting a product layout makes sense when the batch size of a given product or part is large relative to the number of different products or parts produced.
Assembly lines are a special case of product layout. In a general sense, the term assembly line refers to progressive assembly linked by some material-handling device. The usual assumption is that some form of pacing is present and the allowable processing time is equivalent for all workstations. Within this broad definition, there are important differences among line types. A few of these are material handling devices (belt or roller conveyor, overhead crane); line configuration (U-shape, straight, branching); pacing (mechanical, human); product mix (one product or multiple products); workstation characteristics (workers may sit, stand, walk with the line, or ride the line); and length of the line (few or many workers). The range of products partially or completely assembled on lines includes toys, appliances, autos, clothing and a wide variety of electronic components. In fact, virtually any product that has multiple parts and is produced in large volume uses assembly lines to some degree.
A more-challenging problem is the determination of the optimum configuration of operators and buffers in a production flow process. A major design consideration in production lines is the assignment of operation so that all stages are more or less equally loaded. Consider the case of traditional assembly lines illustrated in the following figure.
Traditional assembly line
In this example, parts move along a conveyor at a rate of one part per minute to three groups of workstations. The first operation requires 3 minutes per unit; the second operation requires 1 minute per unit; and the third requires 2 minutes per unit. The first workstation consists of three operators; the second, one operator; and the third, two operators. An operator removes a part from the conveyor and performs some assembly task at his or her workstation. The completed part is returned to the conveyor and transported to the next operation. The number of operators at each workstation was chosen so that the line is balanced. Since three operators work simultaneously at the first workstation, on the average one part will be completed each minute. This is also true for other two stations. Since the parts arrive at a rate of one per minute, parts are also completed at this rate.
Assembly-line systems work well when there is a low variance in the times required to perform the individual subassemblies. If the tasks are somewhat complex, thus resulting in a higher assembly-time variance, operators down the line may not be able to keep up with the flow of parts from the preceding workstation or may experience excessive idle time. An alternative to a conveyor-paced assembly-line is a sequence of workstations linked by gravity conveyors, which act as buffers between successive operations.
Assembly-line balancing often has implications for layout. This would occur when, for balance purposes, workstation size or the number used would have to be physically modified.
The most common assembly-line is a moving conveyor that passes a series of workstations in a uniform time interval called the workstation cycle time (which is also the time between successive units coming off the end of the line). At each workstation, work is performed on a product either by adding parts or by completing assembly operations. The work performed at each station is made up of many bits of work, termed tasks, elements, and work units. Such tasks are described by motion-time analysis. Generally, they are grouping that cannot be subdivided on the assembly-line without paying a penalty in extra motions.
The total work to be performed at a workstation is equal to the sum of the tasks assigned to that workstation. The line-balancing problem is one of assigning all tasks to a series of workstations so that each workstation has no more than can be done in the workstation cycle time, and so that the unassigned (idle) time across all workstations is minimized.
The problem is complicated by the relationships among tasks imposed by product design and process technologies. This is called the precedence relationship, which specifies the order in which tasks must be performed in the assembly process.
The steps in balancing an assembly line are:
The MS 800 car is to be assembled on a conveyor belt. Five hundred cars are required per day. Production time per day is 420 minutes, and the assembly steps and times for the wagon are given below. Find the balance that minimizes the number of workstations, subject to cycle time and precedence constraints.
Our secondary rule, to be invoked where ties exist from our primary rule, is (b) Prioritize tasks in order of longest task time. Note that D should be assigned before B, and E assigned before C due to this tie-breaking rule.
In addition to balancing a line for a given cycle time, managers must also consider four other options: pacing, behavioral factors, number of models produced, and cycle times.Pacing is the movement of product from one station to the next after the cycle time has elapsed. Paced lines have no buffer inventory. Unpaced lines require inventory storage areas to be placed between stations.
The most controversial aspect of product layout is behavioral response. Studies have shown that paced production and high specialization lower job satisfaction. One study has shown that productivity increased on unpaced lines. Many companies are exploring job enlargement and rotation to increase job variety and reduce excessive specialization. For example, New York Life has redesigned the jobs of workers who process and evaluate claims applications. Instead of using a production line approach with several workers doing specialized tasks, New York Life has made each worker solely responsible for an entire application. This approach increased worker responsibility and raised morale. In manufacturing, at its plant in Kohda, Japan, Sony Corporation dismantled the conveyor belts on which as many as 50 people assembled camcorders. It set up tables for workers to assemble an entire camera themselves, doing everything from soldering to testing. Output per worker is up 10 per cent, because the approach frees efficient assemblers to make more products instead of limiting them to conveyor belt’s speed. And if something goes wrong, only a small section of the plant is affected. This approach also allows the line to match actual demand better and avoid frequent shutdown because of inventory buildups.
NUMBER OF MODELS PRODUCED
A mixed-model line produces several items belonging to the same family. A single-model line produces one model with no variations. Mixed model production enables a plant to achieve both high-volume production and product variety. However, it complicates scheduling and increases the need for good communication about the specific parts to be produced at each station.
A line’s cycle time depends on the desired output rate (or sometimes on the maximum number of workstations allowed). In turn, the maximum line efficiency varies considerably with the cycle time selected. Thus, exploring a range of cycle times makes sense. A manager might go with a particularly efficient solution even if it does not match the output rate. The manager can compensate for the mismatch by varying the number of hours the line operates through overtime, extending shifts, or adding shifts. Multiple lines might even be the answer.
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Production And Operations Management Tutorial
Introduction To Production And Operation
Plant Location And Layout
Production Planning And Control
Work Study (time And Motion Study)
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