The analysis involved in the design of production lines and assembly lines relates primarily to timing, coordination, and balance among individual stages in the process.For process layouts, the relative arrangement of departments and machines is the critical factor because of the large amount of transportation and handling involved.
PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESS LAYOUTS
Process layout design determines the best relative locations of functional work centers. Work centers that interact frequently, with movement of material or people, should be located close together, whereas those that have little interaction can be spatially separated. One approach of designing an efficient functional layout is described below.
The first step in the layout process is to identify and describe each work centre. The description should include the primary function of the work centre; drilling, new accounts, or cashier; its major components, including equipment and number of personnel; and the space required. The description should also include any special access needs (such as access to running water or an elevator) or restrictions (it must be in a clean area or away from heat).
For a new facility, the spatial configuration of the work centers and the size and shape of the facility are determined simultaneously. Determining the locations of special structures and fixtures such as elevators, loading docks, and bathrooms becomes part of the layout process.
However, in many cases the facility and its characteristics are a given. In these situations, it is necessary to obtain a drawing of the facility being designed, including shape and dimensions, locations of fixed structures, and restrictions on activities, such as weight limits on certain parts of a floor or foundation.
Relationship flow diagram
To minimize transport times and material-handling costs, we would like to place close together those work centers that have the greatest flow of materials and people between them. To estimate the flows between work centers, it is helpful to begin by drawing relationship diagram as shown in the above figure.
For manufacturing systems, material flows and transporting costs can be estimated reasonably well using historical routings for products or through work sampling techniques applied to workers or jobs. The flow of people, especially in a service system such as a business office or a university administration building, may be difficult to estimate precisely, although work sampling can be used to obtain rough estimates.
The amounts and/or costs of flows among work centers are usually presented using a flow matrix, a flow-cost matrix, or a proximity chart.
Flow Matrix Table
Flow-cost Matrix Table
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Production And Operations Management Tutorial
Introduction To Production And Operation
Plant Location And Layout
Production Planning And Control
Work Study (time And Motion Study)
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