Managers like to believe that they are accomplished in such group activities like group decision making, goal setting and problem solving. However-their ability to implement such techniques is often hindered by their lack of understanding of the dynamics of group-decision making processes. As a result, these managers often end up perpetuating problems that they themselves create through their insensitivity to the needs of other group members. Hence, instead of achieving a consensus, such managers take decision by the use of their authority. Sometimes, they lead the group towards decision making by minority rule or by majority rule. The better way to achieve consensus would be for them to track how decisions are made and ensure that they are achieved by consultations with group members.
The various methods of group decision making are given below:
In other words, all ideas that have been simply bypassed have in a sense been rejected by the group. The idea has been rejected because the 'rejections' is a simply a common decision not to support the idea. This method is also called the 'plop' method because the suggestion of the proposer has been 'plopped'.
This is so because of two kinds of psychological barriers:
As there are time constraints in coming to a group decision and because there is not perfect system, a decision by consensus is one of the most effective methods. This method is time consuming. Recognising the several types of group decision-making is only part of the process. Managers must be specific in their approach to the one that is best in their own situation.
Techniques for Group Decision Making: - The most common form of group decision making takes place in face-to-face interacting groups. Interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. Once a manager has determined the technique that a group decision approach should be used, he or she can determine the technique best suited to the decision situation. Seven techniques are summarized below:
In typical brainstorming session, about 6 to 10 people sit and discuss the problem. The group leader states the problem in a clear manner so that all participants understand it. No criticism is allowed, and all the alternatives are recorded for later discussion and analysis.
One recent trend is the use of electronic brainstorming instead of verbal brainstorming in groups. Electronic brainstorming overcomes two common problems that can produce group-brainstorming failure:
NGT is a good technique to use in a situation where group members fear criticism from others. The chief advantage of the NGT method is that it permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does the interacting group.
The advantages of the Delphi Technique are as follows:
The Disadvantages of the Delphi Technique are mentioned below:
The advantages of electronic meetings are
The disadvantages of electronic meetings are
Quality teams, in contrast, are included in total quality management and other quality improvement efforts as part of a change in the organization's structure. Quality teams are generated from the top down and are empowered to act on their own recommendations.
Quality Circles and quality teams are methods for using groups in the decision making process. The next method, self-managed teams take the concept of participation one step further.
Before choosing a group decision-making technique, the manager carefully evaluates the group members and the decision situation. Then the best method for accomplishing the objectives of the group decision-making process can be selected.
For example: -
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