Most control methods can be grouped into one of the two basic types:

  • Future-oriented controls and
  • Past-oriented controls.

Past-oriented Controls

These are also known as post-action controls and measure results after the process. They examine what has happened in a particular period in the past. These controls can be used to plan future behaviour in the light of past errors or successes.

Future-oriented Controls

These are also known as steering controls or feed-forward controls and are designed to measure results during the process so that action can be taken before the job is done or the period is over. They serve as warning-posts principally to direct attention rather than to evaluate e.g.: Cash flow analysis, funds flow analysis, network planning etc.

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Principles of Management and Organisational Behaviour Topics