Planning means looking ahead. It is deciding in advance what is to be done. Planning includes forecasting. According to Henry Fayol - "purveyance, which is an essential element of planning, covers not merely looking into the future but making provisions for it. A plan is then a projected course of action". All planning involves anticipation of the future course of events and therefore bears an element of uncertainty in respect of its success. Planning is concerned with the determination of the objectives to be achieved and course of action to be followed to achieve them. Before any operative action takes place it is necessary to decide what, where, when and who shall do the things. Decision making is also an important element of planning. Planning determines both long-term and short-term objectives and also of the individual departments as well as the entire organisation. According to Fayol - "The plan of action is, at one and the same time, the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed, the stages to go through, and the methods to use. It is a kind of future picture wherein proximate events are outlined with some distinctness...." Planning is a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculties' imagination, foresight, sound judgement etc.
Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. It involves the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programmes from among alternatives. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified goal. It is a statement of objectives to be achieved by certain means in the future. In short, it is a blue print for action.
According to Louis A Allen - "Management planning involves the development of fore casts, objectives, policies, programmes, procedures, schedules and budgets".
According to The oHaimann - "Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. When a manager plans, he projects a course of action, for the future, attempting to achieve a consistent, co-ordinated structure of operations aimed at the desired results".
According to Koontz O'Donnel - "Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of courses of action, the basing of decisions on purpose, acts and considered estimates".
Nature of Planning
Importance of Planning
As a managerial function planning is important due to the following reasons:-
Advantages of Planning
Disadvantages of Planning
The planning process involves the following steps:
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