People in organizations are always judging each other. Managers must appraise their subordinate's performance. In many cases, these judgements have important consequences for the organizations.
Let us look at the more obvious applications of perceptions in organization.
The employment interview is an important input into the hiring decision and a manager must recognize that perceptual factors influence who is hired. Therefore, eventually the quality of an organization's labour force depends on the perception of the interviewers.
The evaluator forms a general impression of an employee's work. What the evaluator perceives to be "good" or "bad" employee characteristics will, significantly influences the appraisal outcome. An employee's future is closely tied to his or her appraisal -promotions, pay raises and continuation of employment are among the most obvious outcomes.
The term self-fulfilling prophecy or Pygmalion effect have evolved to characterize the fact that people's expectations determine their behaviour. Managers can harness the power of the Pygmalion effect to improve productivity in the organization. It appears that high expectations of individuals come true. Managers can extend these high expectations of individuals to an entire group. When a manager expects positive things from a group, the group delivers. Similarly, if a manager expects people to perform minimally, they will tend to behave so as to meet these low expectations. Thus, the expectations become reality.
The assessment of an employee's loyalty or commitment is highly judgemental.
What is perceived as loyalty by one may be seen as excessive by another. An employee who questions a top management decision may be seen as disloyal. Some employees called whistle -blowers who report unethical practices by their employer to authorities inside or outside the organization, typically act out of loyalty to their organization but are perceived by management as trouble makers.
Impression Management: Most people want to make favourable impression on others. Impression management is the process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them. This is particularly true in organizations, where individuals compete for jobs, favourable performance evaluations and salary increases. Some impression management techniques used in organizations are given below:
Individuals dress carefully for interviews because they want to "look the part" in order to get the job. Self -descriptions, or statements about one's characteristics, are used to manage impressions as well.
Impression management seems to have an impact on others impressions. As long as the impressions conveyed are accurate, this process can be beneficial one in organizations.
If the impressions are found to be false, however, a strongly negative overall impression may result. Further more, excessive impression management can lead to the perception that the user is manipulative or insincere.
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