The same stressful events may lead to distress and strain for one person and to excitement and healthy results for another. Even when all employees agree that a source of stress is negative, some will cope better than others. Individual differences play a central role in the stress-strain relationship. Several factors that help explain these individual differences are:
Holmes Scale of Stress Values.
If, in the course of a year, a person experiences life events whose points total 150 to 300, that person has a 50% chance of a serious health problem in the following year. The risk rises to at least 70% among people whose total points exceed 300. In other words, life events requiring readjustment appear to be a source of stress.
Type A Behaviour Pattern
According to M Friedman and R. H Rosenman, Type A individual is "aggressively involved Stress in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or other persons". These characteristics tend to be highly prized and positively associated with ambition and the successful acquisition of material goods.
The medical advice to hard-working Type As is to slow down and learns to relax. Organizations face ethical and practical challenges in managing these individuals. The need to accomplish work and the Type A person's need to achieve might suggest that managers should assign Type A employees to difficult projects. Type A behaviour has been linked to high performance in academic settings, but the evidence for such a link in other settings has been mixed. So far, the research literature does not provide firm conclusions to help managers resolve this ethical dilemma. Other things being equal, it might be best to select Type A employees for the less complex jobs or at least to notify them of the risks.
Type B's behaviour pattern is l Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;
Type B people are less coronary prone, but if they do have a heart attack, they do not appear to recover as well as those with type A personalities.
Organizations can also be characterized as Type A or Type B organizations. Type A individuals in Type B organizations and Type B individuals in Type A organizations experience stress related to a misfit between their personality type and the predominant type of the organization. However, preliminary evidence suggests that Type A individuals in Type A organizations are most at risk of health disorders.
Type A or Type B characteristics reflect an individual's desire for achievement, perfectionism, competitiveness, and ability to relax.
Excerpt from Type A - Type B scale
Commitment: Commitment is a curiosity and engagement with one's environment that leads to the experience of activities as interesting and enjoyable. Commitment therefore refers to a person's belief in the truth, importance and interest value of self and work.
Control: Control is a person's belief that he or she can influence events, coupled with the tendency to act accordingly. Control therefore is an ability to influence the process and outcomes of events that lead to the experience of activities as personal choices.
Challenge: Challenge is the belief that people seek change rather than routine and stability. The hardy personality appears to use these three components actively to engage in transformational coping is actively changing an event into something less subjectively stressful by viewing it in a broader life perspective, by altering the course and outcome of the event through action and / or by achieving greater understanding of the process.
The alternative to transformational coping is regressive coping, a much less healthy form of coping with stressful events characterized by a passive avoidance of events by decreasing interaction with the environment. Regressive coping may lead to short-term stress reduction at the cost of long-term healthy life adjustment.
People experiencing significant stressors are less likely to become mentally or physically ill if they have a high level of hardiness. These people are likely to use such coping strategies as keeping the stressors in perspective, knowing that they have the resources to cope, and seeing stressors as opportunities rather than threats.
Self-reliance results in a secure pattern of attachment and interdependent behaviour. The two insecure patterns of attachment are counter dependence and over dependence.
Counter dependence: Counter dependence is an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behaviour Stress that leads to separation in relationships with other people. Counter dependence may be characterized as a rigid, dismissing, denial of the need for other people in difficult and stressful times. Counter dependent people exhibit a fearless, aggressive and actively powerful response to challenges.
Over dependence: Over dependence is also an unhealthy, insecure pattern of behaviour. Over dependence may be characterized as a desperate, preoccupied attempt to achieve a sense of security through relationships. Over dependence prevents a person from being able to organize and maintain healthy relationships and thus creates much distress.
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Foundation Of Group Behaviour
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