Work groups are not unorganised mobs. They have a structure that shapes the behaviour of members and makes it possible to explain and predict a large portion of individual behavior within the group as well as the performance of the group itself.
Group structure includes: -
The primary function of a leader (informal / formal) is to facilitate the accomplishment of group goals. He aids the group in accomplishing its goals. To survive, the group must gear its efforts to achieve its primary goals. Leader, constantly evaluates, directs and motivates member behaviour towards overall goals.
Characteristics of Roles
Role Identity: Role identity is certain attitudes and behaviour consistent with a role.
People have the ability to shift roles rapidly when they recognize that the situation and its demands clearly require major changes. For example, when a worker holds a position in a workers union is promoted as supervisor, his attitude will change from pro-union to pro-management.
Role Perception: Role perception is an individual's view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation. Based on an interpretation of how we believe we are supposed to behave, we engage in certain types of behaviour.
Role Expectations: Role expectations are defined as how others believe you should act in a given situation. How you behave is determined to a large extent by the role defined in the context in which you are acting.
Role Conflict: Role conflict is a situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Role conflict, like other forms of conflict, can be a major source of stress. Excessive stress can cause problems for individual employees and for the organizations that employ them.
According to Hackman, Norms have five characteristics: -
Types of Norms
A work group's norms are unique to each work group. Yet there are some common classes of norms that appear in most work groups.
Factors Influencing Conformance to Norms
As a member of a group, you desire acceptance by the group. Because of your desire for acceptance, you are susceptible to conforming to the group's norms. Considerable evidence shows that groups can place strong pressures on individual members to change their attitudes and behaviours to conform to the group's standard. However, conformity to norms is not automatic it depends on the following factors:
Formal Status: Status may be formally imposed by organizations through position and titles. We are all familiar with the trappings of high organizational status – large offices with impressive views, fancy titles, high pay etc.
Informal Status: Status may be informally acquired by such characteristics as education, age, gender, skill and experience. Anything can have status value if others in the group evaluate it as status conferring.
Status is an important characteristic of groups because it affects group structure and dynamics. Status figures in the allocation of roles among group members. In general, high-status group members get high status roles such as group leader or expert, whereas low-status group members get low-status roles. Furthermore, group members tend to pay more attention to input from high-status group members, including their contributions to group decisions.
Composition: Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Given this requirement, it would be reasonable to conclude that heterogeneous groups would be more likely to have diverse abilities and information and should be more effective. When a group is heterogeneous in terms of gender, personalities, opinions, abilities, skills and perspectives, there is an increased probability that the group will possess the needed characteristics to complete its tasks effectively. The group may be more conflict laden and less expedient as diverse positions are introduced and assimilated, but the evidence generally supports the conclusion that heterogeneous groups perform more effectively than do those that are homogeneous.
Conclusion: In interpreting behaviour of a particular group, it is important to recognize not only a broad pattern of development but also the unique characteristics of the particular group and the circumstances that contribute to (or detract from) its development. The behaviour of individuals in groups is something more than the sum total of each acting in his or her own way. Groups help in building synergy is necessary for an organisation's success.
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Principles Of Management And Organisational Behaviour Tutorial
Management Science Theory And Practice
Management And Society
Functions Of Management
Human Factors And Motivation
Leadership And Group Decision Making
The Process Of Controlling
Control Techniques & Global Controlling
Attitudes, Values And Work Ethics
Perception And Learning
Foundation Of Group Behaviour
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