"Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning "to move". Human motives are internalised goals within individuals. Motivation may be defined as those forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. Motivation encompasses all those pressures and influences that trigger, channel, and sustain human behaviour. Most successful managers have learned to understand the concept of human motivation and are able to use that understanding to achieve higher standards of subordinate work performance.

Motivation has been defined by Michael J Juicus as "the act of stimulating someone or one self to get a desired course of action".

In the words of Lewis Allen, "Motivation is the work a manager performs to inspire, encourage and impel people to take required action".

In the words of Tolman, "The term motivation has been called an intervening variable.

Intervening variables are internal and psychological process which are not directly observable and which, in turn, account for behaviour".

The Encyclopaedia of Management observes: "Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal, and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces, including the degree of readiness".

In the words of C. B. Mamoria - Motivation is - "a willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or reward. It is a force that activates dormant energies and sets in motion the action of the people. It is the function that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of an organization".

Motivation is a process by which a need or desire is aroused and a psychological force within our mind sets us in motion to fulfil our needs and desire. An unsatisfied need becomes the motive for a person to spend his energy in order to achieve a goal. In a business organization the 4 P's praise, prestige promotion and pay are the best positive motivators.

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Principles of Management and Organisational Behaviour Topics