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Principles Of Management And Organisational Behaviour

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Management may be defined in many different ways. Many eminent authors on the subject have defined the term "management", some of these definitions are reproduced below:

According to Lawrence A Appley- "Management is the development of people and not the direction of things".

According to Joseph Massie- "Management is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs action towards common goals".

In the words of George R Terry- "Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organising, actuating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources".

From the definitions quoted above, it is clear the "management" is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co-ordinated manner for realising the specific objectives through productive use of material resources.Mobilising the physical, human and financial resources and planning their utilisation for business operations in such a manner as to reach the defined goals can be referred to as "management". If the views of the various authorities are combined, management could be defined as "a distinct ongoing process of allocating inputs of an organisation (human and economic resources) by typical managerial functions (planning, organising, directing and controlling) for the purpose of achieving stated objectives namely – output of goods and services desired by its customers (environment). In the process, work is preformed with and through personnel of the organisation in an ever-changing business environment".

Management is a universal process in all organised social and economic activities. It is not merely restricted to factory, shop or office. It is an operative force in all complex organisations trying to achieve some stated objectives. Management is necessary for a business firm, government enterprises, education and health services, military organisations, trade associations and so on.