Groups in organizations are more than collections of individual employees. We can distinguish effective groups in terms of role structures, norms, cohesiveness, leadership, status, tasks and size.
These characteristics of group behaviour act as a means of understanding why some groups perform better than others.
Roles develop through a combination of group processes and individual processes.
A group is most likely to be effective if its members understand and accept roles that are consistent with high perform.
Norms may exist in any aspect of work group life. They may evolve informally or unconsciously within a group, or they may arise in response to challenges. Norms reflect the culture of the particular group, so they vary from one group to another. When the group's norms are consistent with the organization's goals, they can contribute to organizational effectiveness. The degree to which norms have an impact depends on the extent to which group members comply with them and the group's enforcement of them.
Individual Adjustment: The degree to which group members accept norms is called individual adjustment. The impact of individual adjustment on the group depends on whether norms are pivotal or peripheral. Pivotal norms define behaviour that is absolutely required for continued membership in the group. Peripheral norms define behaviour that is desirable - but not essential - for continued group membership. Combining these types of norms with the choice of whether to accept them results in four possible levels of individual adjustment:
Enforcement of Norms: To function effectively, groups enforce their norms in various ways.
This is due to the strong motivation in highly cohesive groups to maintain good, close relationships with other members.
Factors Affecting Cohesiveness: Individuals tend to consider a group attractive if it meets the following conditions:
Furthermore, cohesiveness may be easier to establish in a group whose membership is homogeneous. Groups also tend to be highly cohesive when they perceive a threat that gives group members a "common enemy".
The status of group members can enhance effectiveness if the high-status members have the most to contribute to the group's objectives. However, if status causes a person to have influence beyond his or her ability to contribute to group goals, the group's effectiveness will suffer.
Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group
Characteristics of Mature Groups
The description of a well-functioning effective groups in the figure above characterizes a mature group. Such a group has four distinguishing characteristics:
Group cohesion is influenced by a number of factors, most notably time, size, the prestige of the team, external pressure, and internal competition. Group cohesion evolves gradually over time through a group's normal development.
External Conditions Imposed on the Group
Groups are a subset of a larger organization system. Therefore, the organization will impose some conditions on the group. These external conditions are: -
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Foundation Of Group Behaviour
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