The word communication rises from the Latin word “commūnicāre”, which means “to share”. Communication is the simple step for the interchange of information.
For instance, a baby in a cradle communicates with a cry that she needs her mother. A cow moos loudly when it is in danger. A person communicates with the help of a language. Communication is the bridge to share.
Communication can be defined as the procedure of exchange of information through means such as words, actions, signs, etc., between two or more individuals.
For every living being, while co-existing, there take place the need of exchange of some information. Every time a need for exchange of information arises, some ways of communication must exist. While the means of communication can be everything such as gestures, signs, symbols, or a language, the need for communication is inevitable.
Language and gestures play a significant role in human communication, while sounds and actions are significant for animal communication. Though, when some message has to be conveyed, a communication has to be recognized.
Any system which offers communication comprises of the three significant and elementary parts as shown in the resulting figure.
Transmission of information by some means such as gestures, sounds, actions, etc., can be termed as signaling. Thus, a signal can be a basis of energy which transmits some information. This signal aids to create communication between a sender and a receiver.
An electrical impulse or an electromagnetic wave which travels a distance to transfer a message can be called as a signal in communication systems.
Reliant on their characteristics, signals are mostly categorized into two types: Analog and Digital. Analog and Digital signals are further categorized, as shown in the resulting figure.
A nonstop time varying signal, which signifies a time changing quantity can be termed as an Analog Signal. This signal retains on varying with respect to time, according to the immediate values of the quantity, which characterizes it.
Let us think through a tap that fills a tank of 100 liters capacity in an hour (6 am to 7 am). The portion of filling the tank is varied by the varying time. Which means, after 15 mins (6:15 am) the quarter portion of the tank gets filled, whereas at 6:45 am, 3/4th of the tank is filled.
If you try to plot the changing rations of water in the tank, according to the varying time, it would look like the resulting figure.
As the subsequent shown in this image varies (increases) according to time, this time varying quantity can be understood as Analog quantity. The signal which signifies this condition with a tending line in the figure is an Analog Signal. The communication based on analog signals and analog values is called as Analog Communication.
A signal which is distinct in nature or which is non-continuous in form can be named as a Digital signal. This signal has separate values, designated individually, which are not based on the earlier values, as if they are derived at that specific instant of time.
Let us think through a classroom having 20 students. If their presence in a week is plotted, it would look like the resulting figure.
In this figure, the values are distinctly specified. For example, the attendance of the class on Wednesday is 20 while on Saturday is 15. These values can be measured separately and distinctly or individually, therefore they are called as discrete values.
The binary digits which has merely 1s and 0s are typically termed as digital values. Therefore, the signals which signify 1s and 0s are also called as digital signals. The communication based on digital signals and digital values is called as Digital Communication.
Any analog or digital signal, that repeats its pattern over a period of time, is called as a Periodic Signal. This signal has its pattern sustained frequently and is easy to be expected or to be calculated.
If we think through machinery in an industry, the procedure that takes place one after the other is a continuous and repeat procedure. For instance, obtaining and classifying the raw material, processing the material in batches, packing a load of products one after the other etc., follow a certain procedure frequently.
Such a procedure whether measured analog or digital, can be graphically signified as follows.
Any analog or digital signal, that doesn’t repeat its pattern over a period of time, is called as Aperiodic Signal. This signal has its pattern sustained but the pattern is not continual and is not so easy to be expected or to be calculated.
The daily tedious of a person, if measured, contains of many types of works which take altered time intervals for different works. The time interval or the work doesn’t endlessly repeat. For instance, a person will not endlessly brush his teeth from morning to night, that too with the same time period.
Such a procedure whether measured analog or digital, can be vividly signified as follows.
In overall, the signals which are used in communication systems are analog in nature, which are transmitted in analog or changed to digital and then transmitted, contingent upon the requirement.
But for a signal to get transmitted to a distance, without the result of any external interventions or noise addition and without getting faded away, it has to experience a procedure called as Modulation, which is deliberated in the next section.
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