Before you can design a system, it is important to understand what it's supposed to do. Too often this comes in the form of a verbal request such as, "We need a home page with a guest book and a visitor counter," which is never further defined. This usually leads to the building of a prototype that is 25 percent of what the client wants. Changes are made to the prototype, and the site is now 50 percent of what the client wants now. During the time the changes were made, the client has moved the target.
The solution to this problem is to set a target and stick with it. This should start with a statement of the goals for the project. In my experience the most important question left unasked is about motivation. When a client asks for a large animated scene to appear on their index page, often the motivation is a desire to seem familiar with leading-edge technology. Instead of blindly fulfilling the client's request, it is better to look for the best solution for the "Why?". A slick graphical design can say more about the client's attention to advances in technology.
Once you have asked "Why?" enough times, you should have a list of several goals for the project. These goals should suggest a set of requirements. If one of the system's goals is to generate more business, one requirement may be to raise visitor awareness of items in the client's catalog. This may evolve into a requirement that products appear throughout the site on a rotational basis. This could be implemented as banners or kickers strategically placed within the site. Don't, however, tie yourself down with design issues. This earliest stage of site development should concentrate solely on the goals of the system.
From a solid base of goals, you can begin to describe the system requirements. This usually takes the form of a requirements specification document, a formal description of the black-box behavior expected from the site. The goals will suggest a collection of functional requirements and constraints on the design. As I've said, having a goal of increasing sales suggests, among other things, that the site should raise customer awareness of catalog items. Another requirement could be that the site provide some free service to attract visitors. An example is a loan company offering a mortgage calculator. It is a good idea to informally explore possible solutions to requirements, but it's still important to keep design decisions out at this time.
The requirements specification is formal and structured, but it should be understandable by nonexperts in the implementation technology. The description of the system's behavior serves partially as a contract between the client and developer. Clear statements will eliminate misunderstandings that have a high cost later in development. That is not to say that the document shouldn't be precise. When possible, state requirements in measurable terms. Constraining page size to 30K is an objective standard and easily tested. Requiring the site to inspire confidence in the client company is not easily measurable, but sometimes it's all you have.
Table lists six things toward which a requirements specification should aspire. It should only specify external behavior. Every requirement should be expressed as the answer to a "What?" question. It should specify constraints. These are best expressed as quantities: How many hits per day? Maximum page size? Maximum page depth? The requirements specification should allow you to change it later. While you should use natural language, don't write a long narrative. Number sections of the document and use diagrams where necessary. It should be a document that helps a future programmer learn about the system. Don't be surprised if that programmer is you six months later.
The requirements should pay attention to the entire life of the system. If the system needs to be able to recover from a catastrophic failure within an hour, write it into the specification. And the follow-up to this idea is that you should describe how the system deals with adversity—not just disaster, but also illegal user input. Some systems ignoreuser input that is not understood. How many times have you seen a "404 Document Not Found" error? It's nice when that page includes a link to the index page of the site.
Keeping these guidelines in mind, which outlines the structure of a requirements specification. The overview should be a page or less that reviews the goals of the site. If the goals were detailed in another document, make this document available.
It is important to preserve the thought that went into the project at each phase. The requirements build on the goals, and in turn the design will build on the requirements.But being able to refer to the original goals of the system will be helpful to the designer and even the implementer.
The operating and development environments are sometimes overlooked in requirements specifications. This includes both the browser and the Web server. If you are developing an intranet application, you may be fortunate enough to optimize for a particular browser version. I've found that while a large company may impose a standard browser for the organization for which you've developed an application, another standard may apply to the users in another organization a thousand miles away. My wish for you is that you never build a system for Netscape Navigator version 3.01, only to be asked to make the system work for Microsoft Internet Explorer version 3.02.
The Web server is perhaps more under your control and certainly less finicky about differences in source code. If you are using PHP, most likely you will be using Apache. It's good idea to use identical versions of both Apache and PHP for your development and live environments.
For the most part, your list of external interfaces will include the Internet connection between the browser and the Web server, the local file system, and possibly a database connection. I find it helpful to create a diagram that shows the relationship between data elements, the simplest of which might be a box labeled Browser connected to a box labeled Server. The line would have arrows at each end to show that information travels in both directions. This diagram is a description of the context, not a design of the data structure. Whether you will be using a database may be obvious, but which database may not. If the system will be storing data somehow, just show data flowing into a box that could be database or flat file. The goal is to describe how data moves around in the system.
The functional requirements will certainly be the largest part of the document. If you have drawn a data flow diagram, you may have a very good idea of how the system breaks up into modules. The more you can partition the functionality into distinct pieces, the easier it will be to group the functional requirements. I've written many requirements documents for Web applications that are essentially data warehouses. My approach has been to dedicate a section to each of the major data entities. A project management application might have a collection of project descriptions, a collection of users, and a collection of comments. Each of these would have a section in the functional requirements that lists first all the information they store and then the ways the information can be manipulated.
The performance requirements are constraints on the functionality. You may wish to outline a minimum browser configuration for use of the site. Maximum page weights are a good idea. If the client is dictating that a certain technology be used, it should be noted in this section. It's good to know in advance that while you will be allowed to use PHP, you have to deal with Oracle and Internet Information Server on Windows NT.
The exception-handling section describes how the system deals with adversity. The two parts of this are disaster and invalid input. Discuss what should happen if the Web server suddenly bursts into flame. Decide whether backups will be made hourly, daily, or weekly. Also decide how the system handles users entering garbage. For example, define whether filling out a form with a missing city asks the user to hit the back button or automatically redisplays the form with everything filled out and the missing field marked with a red asterisk.
If the client has a preference for the order of implementation, outline it. My experience has been that, faced with a dire deadline before the project begins, the client will bargain for which functionality will appear in the first round. Other requirements may not be critical to the system, and the client is willing to wait. If there is a preference in this area, it is very important for the designer and implementers to know in advance.
Farther in the future are the foreseeable modifications. The client may not be ready to create a million-dollar e-commerce site just yet, but they may expect to ask you to plug this functionality into the site a year from now. It may not make sense to use an expensive database to implement a 50-item catalog, but building a strong foundation for later expansion will likely be worthwhile.
The last part of the requirements specification is a collection of design hints. This represents the requirements writer's forethought about pitfalls for the designer. You might summarize a similar project. You might suggest a design approach.
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Sorting Searching And Random Numbers
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Efficiency And Debugging
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