More than 20 infectious diseases in the United States can be prevented by vaccination. Some vaccines are routinely administered to both children and adults. Other vaccines are given under special circumstances to military personnel, travellers whose destination are certain foreign countries, and the chronically ill.
These preventable diseases include adenovirus, cholera, diphtheria, Haemophilusinfluenzaetype b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Lyme disease, measles, meningococcal disease, poliomyelitis, rabies, rotavirus, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, typhoid, varicella, and yellow fever.
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends a schedule for vaccination for children Web site
Adults are frequently overlooked when it comes to vaccination because emphasis is placed on preventing children from developing preventable diseases. However, the CDC suggests adults review their immunizations on decade birthdays (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60).
Adults should also review their immunizations every time they travel to a foreign country regardless of their age. The CDC provides information regarding appropriate immunizations on their Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/).
ADVERSE EVENTS OF VACCINE
Biologic products such as vaccines do not undergo the pharmacokinetic process that is associated with other drug therapies. Vaccines are generally safe. Some common mild reactions include swelling at the injection site and fever. Absolute contraindications for the use of vaccines include anaphylactic reaction to a specific vaccine or component of another vaccine or moderate or severe illness.
Healthcare providers are expected to report vaccine adverse events to public health officials who report these to the CDC every week using the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), which is used to provide compensation for injury and death caused by vaccination.
ARE YOU VACCINATED?
Patients may not know if they’ve been vaccinated. Therefore, healthcare professionals perform a blood test to determine detectable levels of antibodies in the bloodstream for preventable diseases such as Rubella.
If antibodies are detected in sufficient quantity, then the patient is immune to the disease. If the antibodies are not detected, then the patient needs to be revac-cinated. Healthcare professionals are required to be vaccinated for many common communicable diseases in order to prevent acquiring the disease and passing the disease along to patients.
NURSING ACTIONS FOR VACCINATIONS
Here are the steps that should be followed when vaccinating a patient:
PATIENT EDUCATION FOR VACCINATIONS
Here are facts that patients should know about vaccinations:
The development of organ transplants which include kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas has led to the development of immunosuppressant drugs. These drugs are meant to suppress the body’s natural reaction to reject the foreign protein so the person doesn’t reject the transplanted organ. Some of these drugs include azathioprine (Imuran), cyclosporine (Sandimmune), muromonab-DC3 (Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolatemofetil (Cell Cept), and tacrolimus (FK506 Prograf).
Some of the side effects of these drugs include nausea and vomiting and an increased risk of tumor growth. Significant leukopenia and thrombocytopenia may occur. These drugs are expensive and must be continued for the life of the patient.
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