Phenothiazines - Pharmacology

Phenothiazines are divided into three groups. These are aliphatic, piperazine, and piperidine. Each category has different side effects (The effects of categories of antipsychotics).The aliphatic group produces a strong sedative effect, decreases blood pressure, and may moderate extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Chlorpromazine is a member of this group.

The piperzine group produces a low sedative effect and a strong anti¬emetic effect, more EPS, and little effect on blood pressure. Included in this group are prochlorperazine (Compazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), and trifluoperazine (Stelazine).

The piperidine group includes mesoridazinebesylate (Serentil) and thiori-dazineHCl (Mellaril). These produce few EPS or anti-emetic effects and can cause hypotension.

Anxiolytics

Anxiolytics are medications used to treat anxiety and insomnia. These have replaced sedatives that were traditionally used because they have fewer and less potent side effects, especially if an overdose of the medication is given to the patient. Benzodizepine is the major group of anxiolytics.

Anxiolytics are prescribed when the patient’s anxiety reaches a level where the patient becomes disabled and is unable to perform normal activities. Anxiolytics have a sedative-hypnotic effect on the patient, but not an antipsychotic effect.

There are two types of anxiety: primary anxiety and secondary anxiety. Primary anxiety is not caused by a medical condition or drug use but may be situational. Secondary anxiety is caused by a medical condition or by drug use. Anxiolytics are usually not administered for secondary anxiety unless the sec¬ondary cause is severe or untreatable. Instead, the secondary cause is treated.

Benzodizepines are prescribed to treat severe or prolonged anxiety, but are also used to treat convulsions, hypertension, and as a sedative-hypnotic and

The effects of categories of antipsychotics.

TABLE : The effects of categories of antipsychotics.
pre-operative medication. Benzodizepines include chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), chlorazepatgedipotassium (Tranxene), oxazepam (Serax), lorazepam (Ativan), and alprazolam (Xanax).


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