These drugs are used to treat two types of fungal infections
The conditions may be mild such as tineapedis (ahtlete’s foot), or severe as in pulmonary conditions or meningitis.
Fungi, such as Candida spp. (yeast), are normal flora of mouth, skin, intes¬tine, and vagina. Candidiasis might be an opportunistic infection when the defense mechanisms are impaired. Antibiotics, oral contraceptives, and immunosuppressives may alter the body’s defense mechanisms. Infections can be mild (vaginal yeast infection) or severe (systemic fungal infection).
There are four groups of anti-fungal medications. They are:
Polyenes such as amphotericin B are the drug of choice for treating severe systemic infections. It is effective against numerous diseases including histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis, and candidiasis (system infection), however, it is very toxic. It is not absorbed from the GI tract so it cannot be given by mouth.
It is usually prescribed as Amphotericin B (Fungizone). A test dose is given IV: 0.25-1.0 mg in 20 mL of D5W infused over 20-30 min; IV: 0.25-1.0 mg/kg/d in D5W or 1.5 mg/kg qod; max; 1.5 mg/kg/d. The drug is pregnancy category: B; PB: 95%; t1⁄2: 24 h.
Side effects and adverse reactions include flushing, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, paresthesias, and thrombophlebitis. It is highly toxic, causes nephrotoxicity and electrolyte imbalance, especially hypokalemia (low potassium) and hypomagnesemia (low serum magnesium). Urinary output, BUN, and serum creatinine levels should be closely monitored.
Nystatin (Mycostatin) can be given orally or topically to treat candidal infection. It is available in suspensions, cream, ointment, and vaginal tablets. It is poorly absorbed via the GI tract but the oral tablet form is used for intestinal candidiasis. It is more commonly used as an oral suspension for candidal infection in the mouth as a swish and swallow.
Side effects include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (large doses), stomach cramps, rash; vaginal: rash, burning sensation. There are no reported adverse reactions. It is used topically and PO at doses of 500,000-1,000,000 U tid or q8h. This drug has a Pregnancy category: C; PB: UK; t1⁄2: UK.
The Imidazole group is effective against candidiasis (superficial and systemic), coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.
Pharmacology Related Tutorials
|Medical Terminology(Adaptive*) Tutorial|
Pharmacology Related Interview Questions
|Medical Terminology(Adaptive*) Interview Questions||Pharmacology Interview Questions|
|Clinical Research Interview Questions||Medical Cardiology Interview Questions|
|Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Interview Questions||Medical School Interview Questions|
|Pharmacist Interview Questions||Paramedic Interview Questions|
|Clinical Laboratory Technician Interview Questions|
An Inside Look At Pharmacology
Drug Action And Drug Interactions
Pharmacology And The Nursing Process
Principles Of Medication Administration
Route Of Administration
Vitamins And Minerals
Fluid And Electrolyte Therapy
Nutritional Support Therapies
Antimicrobials— Fighting Infection
Nervous System Drugs
Cardiac Circulatory Medications
Disorders Of The Eye And Ear
All rights reserved © 2018 Wisdom IT Services India Pvt. Ltd
Wisdomjobs.com is one of the best job search sites in India.