Perl Operators Perl Scripting

Define operator? How many types of operators are there? Classify them?

What is an Operator?

As we have studied in mathematics we know about the operators which are used to calculate mathematical expressions. Likewise Perl language supports many operator types which helps to run the programs smoothly. Here is the list of most frequently used operators-
  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Equality Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Quote-like Operators
  • Miscellaneous Operators
Lets have a look at all the operators one by one.

Perl Arithmetic Operators

Assume variable $a holds 10 and variable $b holds 20, then following are the Perl arithmatic operators −
Show Example
S.No. Operator & Description
1. + ( Addition )
Adds values on either side of the operator
Example− $a + $b will give 30
2. - (Subtraction)
Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand
Example−$a - $b will give -10
3. * (Multiplication)
Multiplies values on either side of the operator
Example−$a * $b will give 200
4. / (Division)
Divides left hand operand by right hand operand
Example−$b / $a will give 2
5. % (Modulus)
Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder
Example−$b % $a will give 0
6. ** (Exponent)
Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators
Example−$a**$b will give 10 to the power 20

Perl Equality Operators

These are also called relational operators. Assume variable $a holds 10 and variable $b holds 20 then, lets check the following numeric equality operators −
Show Example
S.No. Operator & Description
1. == (equal to)
Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true.
Example− ($a == $b) is not true.
2. != (not equal to)
Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true.
Example− ($a != $b) is true.
3. <=>
Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, and returns -1, 0, or 1 depending on whether the left argument is numerically less than, equal to, or greater than the right argument.
Example− ($a <=> $b) returns -1.
4 > (greater than)
Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
Example− ($a > $b) is not true.
5. < (less than)
Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
Example− ($a < $b) is true.
6. >= (greater than or equal to)
Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
Example− ($a >= $b) is not true.
7. <= (less than or equal to)
Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true.
Example− ($a <= $b) is true.
Below is a list of equity operators. Assume variable $a holds "abc" and variable $b holds "xyz" then, lets check the following string equality operators −
Show Example

Perl Assignment Operators

Assume variable $a holds 10 and variable $b holds 20, then below are the assignment operators available in Perl and their usage −
Show Example

S.No.

Operator & Description

1.

=

Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand

Example− $c = $a + $b will assigned value of $a + $b into $c

2.

+=

Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to left operand

Example− $c += $a is equivalent to $c = $c + $a

3.

-=

Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operand

Example− $c -= $a is equivalent to $c = $c - $a

4.

*=

Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand and assign the result to left operand

Example− $c *= $a is equivalent to $c = $c * $a

5.

/=

Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operand

Example− $c /= $a is equivalent to $c = $c / $a

6.

%=

Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operand

Example− $c %= $a is equivalent to $c = $c % a

7.

**=

Exponent AND assignment operator, Performs exponential (power) calculation on operators and assign value to the left operand

Example− $c **= $a is equivalent to $c = $c ** $a

Perl Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit by bit operation. Assume if $a = 60; and $b = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows −
$a = 0011 1100
$b = 0000 1101
-----------------
$a&$b = 0000 1100
$a|$b = 0011 1101
$a^$b = 0011 0001
~$a = 1100 0011
There are following Bitwise operators supported by Perl language, assume if $a = 60; and $b = 13
Show Example

S.No. Operator & Description
1. &

Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.

Example− ($a & $b) will give 12 which is 0000 1100

2 |

Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in eather operand.

Example− ($a | $b) will give 61 which is 0011 1101

3. ^

Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both.

Example− ($a ^ $b) will give 49 which is 0011 0001

4. ~

Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the efect of 'flipping' bits.

Example− (~$a ) will give -61 which is 1100 0011 in 2's complement form due to a signed binary number.

5. <<

Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand.

Example− $a << 2 will give 240 which is 1111 0000

6. >>

Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits specified by the right operand.

Example− $a >> 2 will give 15 which is 0000 1111

Perl Logical Operators

There are following logical operators supported by Perl language. Assume variable $a holds true and variable $b holds false then −
Show Example

S.No.

Operator & Description

1.

and

Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are true then then condition becomes true.

Example− ($a and $b) is false.

2.

&&

C-style Logical AND operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.

Example− ($a && $b) is false.

3.

or

Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands are non zero then then condition becomes true.

Example− ($a or $b) is true.

4.

||

C-style Logical OR operator copies a bit if it exists in eather operand.

Example− ($a || $b) is true.

5.

not

Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT operator will make false.

Example− not($a and $b) is true.

Quote-like Operators

There are following Quote-like operators supported by Perl language. In the following table, a {} represents any pair of delimiters you choose.
Show Example
S.No. Operator & Description
1. q{ }
Encloses a string with-in single quotes
Example− q{abcd} gives 'abcd'
2. qq{ }
Encloses a string with-in double quotes
Example− qq{abcd} gives "abcd"
3. qx{ }
Encloses a string with-in invert quotes
Example− qx{abcd} gives `abcd`

Miscellaneous Operators

There are following miscellaneous operators supported by Perl language. Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20 then −
Show Example
S.No. Operator & Description
1. .
Binary operator dot (.) concatenates two strings.
Example− If $a = "abc", $b = "def" then $a.$b will give "abcdef"
2. x
The repetition operator x returns a string consisting of the left operand repeated the number of times specified by the right operand.
Example− ('-' x 3) will give ---.
3. ..
The range operator .. returns a list of values counting (up by ones) from the left value to the right value
Example− (2..5) will give (2, 3, 4, 5)
4. ++
Auto Increment operator increases integer value by one
Example− $a++ will give 11
5. --
Auto Decrement operator decreases integer value by one
Example− $a-- will give 9
6. ->
The arrow operator is mostly used in dereferencing a method or variable from an object or a class name
Example− $obj->$a is an example to access variable $a from object $obj.

Perl Operators Precedence

The following table lists all operators from highest precedence to lowest.
Show Example

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