Role of HR in the organizations is big and also tricky. The human resource officer wears many hats handing different responsibilities in the organization in small companies. When it comes to roles of the human resource professionals in the big companies the roles are very specific and so are the organization and management interview questions and answers. As the subject is tricky and vast, the job seeker might not expect the job interview questions and answers asked during the interview. Wisdomjobs.com apart from starching their helping hands to help the human resource professionals a right job in big companies brings down a big list interview questions that might be helpful for the job seekers during the process of the job search.
No, Non-financial incentives reduces absenteeism. Staff appraisals assess the potential for promotion.
No, Principle of unity of command and unity of principle are different. Principle of unity of command refers to receiving order from one superior.
True, It is a social process as it utilizes the best combination of human & non-human resources.
No, Organization is a function Organization and management are different terms.
No, Electronic mail is a tool for written communication. Written communication may be through any media.
There is need for an organization whenever groups of people work together to reach common goals. Thus, in essence, organization is a group of individuals with a common goal, bound together by a set of authority-responsibility relationships. One of the functions of management is to coordinate available resources of an organization for effective operations.
Thus, organizing is the management function that establishes relationships between activity and authority. It refers to four distinct activities :
‘Organisation’ is a broad term. Therefore, study of the organizing process is based on a number of important concepts; such as
Organization charts are an endeavor to record the formal relationships in an organization, showing some of the relationships, the main lines of communication and the downward flow of authority and responsibility through all the levels of the management hierarchy.
If the above disadvantages are considered carefully most of them can be overcome and, if the charts are carefully compiled, kept up-to-date and regarded purely as an aid, they can be of assistance to management.
There are certain conventions which are generally in use in the compilation of charts. Line relationships are shown by a continuous line. A position, function or unit is often enclosed by a ‘box’. Sometimes names of personnel occupying positions are also included in the box. Broken or dotted lines are used to denote functional relationships and vertical and horizontal lines link boxes.
In order to decie upon the method of grouping or division of work, the main objectives of the business must be considered. The grouping of functions or tasks is referred to as departmentation.
This is the most widely used basis of departmentation. Three main categories occur in most enterprises, i.e., production (the creation of, or addition to utility of, a good or service), selling (finding customers for goods and services at a price), and finance (obtaining and expending funds). As types of enterprise vary, department names vary, e.g., a wholesaler does not produce, he buys, and therefore his departments may be buying, selling and finance. Often the amount of money spent may determine the department and the chief business activity are usually made a separate unit, e.g., the auditing department in an accountancy firm.
Committees are a controversial device of organization. They consist of a group of persons to which some matter is committed. Some undertake management functions, e.g., policy making; others do not, e.g.,
operating committees. Some make decisions, others deliberate but do not decide, some have authority to make recommendations to a superior, others are formed purely to receive information without recommending or deciding.
Ad hoc committees are usually temporary, as they are created for a specific purpose, or to solve shortrange problems, rather than for administrative purposes. If they are established as part of the organizational structure, with specifically delegated duties and authority, they are called formal.
Confusion as to the nature of committees has arisen because of the variation of authority assigned to them. They, therefore, should have a clear purpose and be effectively led.
It goes without saying that delegation is crucial to effective management. But in practice, we observe that
some managers do fail to delegate and others delegate weakly. Some proximate reasons for these are :
However, the supervisors alone should not be blamed for their failure to delegate. In other words, all the (four) barriers to effective delegation of authority are to be found in managers and their supervisors.
The problem may lie with the employees. In fact, employees themselves may, sometimes, resist accepting delegation of authority. There are three reasons for this:
Firstly, if authority is delegated the employees feel that they are entrusted with added responsibilities.
They also feel that delegation adds to their accountability. An employee usually finds it easier to go to his (her) manager to resolve a problem than to make the decision himself (herself).
Secondly, there is always the danger that an employee will exercise his new authority poorly and invite criticism. This is what employees attempt to protect themselves from.
Finally, most employees lack self-confidence and feel that if they are granted greater decision-making authority they are always under pressure.
Line organization is a type of structure consisting of direct vertical relationships connecting the positions at each level with those above and below. These line relationships are the channels through which authority flows form its source to point of action.
This structure forms a basic framework for the whole organization. The other types of structure are, in effect, modifications of it and must rely on it for authoritative action. It is usually depicted on charts by solid lines connecting the positions.
Line relations or direct or executive relations are those existing between a senior and his subordinates at all levels of command. The senior’s instructions are to be complied with as authority is direct. When organization is small, the leaders can effectively direct and control-line structure is usually adopted. All major functions, therefore, must be performed or supervised by the owner.
As business grows, time must be allocated among many functions and those which the owner prefers are more efficiently performed. The others will sooner or later be given to specialists and their abilities can be included in the organization by applying concepts of (a) staff, or (b) functional structures.
Staff structure occurs in two forms, staff assistant and specialist. Staff assistants perform their work subject to the approval of their superior; they have no formal authority to command the actions of others and act in the name of their superior.
An effective training programme can :
Before discussing methods of training, the concept of the learning curve can be considered. This curve seeks to present in diagrammatic form the progress of an individual. It ascends quickly, showing increasing profi-ciency, then levels out later. There are various plateaux in the curve, where a person is consolidating and developing his knowledge. Where a group of persons is being trained can be considered as the creation of learning opportunities.
The required needs of managers and supervisors can be said to consist of :
Managers learn better when they see the relevance of what they are learning in relation to their own jobs. In everyday work, there is no time to conceptualise.
A person should be given an opportunity to try out his ideas in situation as near as possible to real life life conditions and practices. Therefore training that is relevant and provides persons or groups with an oppor-tunity to use the ideas learnt will be preferred.
Leadership is a means of directing. A leader’s actions are devoted to helping a group to attain its objectives.
Leadership is the ability of management to induce subordinates to work towards group goals with confidence and keenness. Leadership also implies that the leader accepts responsibility for the achievement of the group objective and it is, there-fore, essential for trust and cooperation from both sides to be in evidence — all the time.
It must be noted that leadership is not synonymous with administrative ability and that numerous attempts have been made to analyse the nature of leadership. One is to contrast authoritarian and democratic leadership.
The authoritarian leader gets others to do things by giving them little scope to influence decisions. He uses fear, threats, rewards, and his authority and personality to get his way. His policy is the ‘stick and carrot’ policy — as used for mules!
The democratic leader seeks to persuade and considers the feelings of persons and encourages their participation in decision-making.
Studies have shown that the democratic method gives followers greater job satisfaction and enables them to cooperate better, but there is doubt as to whether decisions taken, under this sort of leadership are better. Recent studies are more doubtful about democratic leadership because outside influences, e.g., government and consumers, exert pressure and, if a leader becomes too employee-centered, production may suffer and morale fall.
Leadership can be formal i.e., having delegated authority, and can exert great influence. Informal leaders can initiate action, but do not have the same authority. The choice of leader, therefore, should be based on an accurate diagnosis of the environment, i.e., its reality, noticing that effec-tive leadership depends upon many conditions.
Organization theory is the study of structure and design of organizations. It explains how organizations are designed and how can they be constituted to improve organizational effectiveness. On the other hand organizational behavior is he study of the behavior of the individuals and groups in organizational setting. The main points of difference between organization theory and organizational behavior are as follows :
Nature : Organization theory is descriptive and predictive about a particular state of affairs in the organization. On the contrary, organization behavior provides ways of influencing human behavior in desired direction on the basis of such description and prediction.
Purpose : Organization theory attempts to analyse and improve the design of organizations. Organization behavior attempts to explain and predict the behavior of individuals and group in organizations.
Scope of analysis : Organization theory is a macro analysis of organizations designed to integrate people with the organization. On the other hand, organization behavior deals with micro aspects of the organization, i.e. individual and group behavior in the organization.
Focus : In organization theory focus is on the sociology of organization whereas organization behavior stresses upon applied psychology of organizations.
There is, however, a close interrelationship between organization theory and organization behavior. It is not possible that an organization be structured and designed without regard to the people and their needs, feelings, behavioural process, etc. Similarly, one can rarely study and understand behavior in organizations without understanding the structure within which the behavior takes place.
Objectives are ends which the organization seeks to achieve by its existence and operation. Objectives may be classified into two categories viz.
External institutional objectives are those which define the impact of the organization on its environment.
External objectives are those which define how much is expected to be achieved with the available resources.
Goals are targets. Goals emerge from a coalition of interest and individuals who bargain with each other over objectives using money, status and power to press their views. Goal formation is a process wherein individuals seek to expert power to attain acceptable to them.
Morale can be a combination of many factors. A simple definition is that it is the state of a person’s (or a group’s) feelings and attitudes. In a more military sense, it is the quality that exists in a group of people, which arises from faith in their efficiency and discipline, and in the competent and fair way with which they are led. A rather broader meaning is given when it is used in business management — it is the collective attitude of workers towards each other, their work and man-agement.
When morale is high, work is done willingly, and with less supervision; when it is low, work is of poor quality and problems arise, e.g., with a low labour turnover and absenteeism. When groups emerge in industry, each person must sacrifice some part of his individuality, as he, in effect, joins the group to serve the group purpose, thereby (impliedly or other-wise) agreeing to obey those who are in charge. Each group has a particular kind of acceptable behaviour, which is implanted in the mem-ber’s thoughts, and this participation tends to give the members a feeling of superiority over non-group members. Craftsmen often adopt this attitude over non-craftsmen.
If a group can constantly work towards the common purpose, morale can be maintained. The purpose of the group, e.g., to win a race, or to produce an article, becomes accepted as the purpose of the individual.
Individual interests, though, must be subordinated to the group interest and, if this can be done, morale will be high. If morale is good, team spirit should be good as this arises where all members of the group know every member is working to achieve the group goal and obeys internal author-ity. But, if some members are aware that others are more interested in personal success, morale will be low and team spirit will be low.
In industry, for example, the manufacturing department may not achieve its target because of lack of material, and the planning department may be blamed. Many similar cases occur daily, in business — morale may be high (as everyone is trying to achieve the desired goal), but team spirit may be low because people (rightly or wrongly) are aware that some members are not pulling their weight.
The remedy for lack of team spirit is to give the staff better education and knowledge of the other person’s or section’s problems and to make them aware of the fundamental interrelations between department.
A basis for effective discipline is good motivation and sound, clearly-given instructions. It is essential for good communications to be used in order to let staff know what they are required to do.
Ideally, discipline should be based upon cooperation and a high morale, which will ensure that rules and conditions are obeyed willingly. By virtue of his position, a superior has the right to command and enforce obedience, if necessary. This gives him the right to punish, because of the harm which may be done to the group’s purpose.
Discipline can be obtained by rewards as well as by punishment, but, usually, punishment is expected if accepted norms of behavior are not upheld. Disciplinary action should contribute towards improved behavior, but certain matters must be noted :
Planning, both at management level and at operational level, looks to the future and lays down what has to be achieved: control checks whether the plans are being realised and puts into effect corrective measures where deviation or shortfall is occurring.
Without effective controls an enterprise will be at the mercy of all the internal and external forces that can disrupt its efficiency and will be unaware of, and therefore unable to combat such forces.
Control is exercised over every aspect of an organisation’s functions— from management performance to the activities carried on at every stage right down to the shop-floor.
Effective control ensures that efforts produced at all levels are commen-surate with those required to achieve the goals and objectives of manage-ment and of the different functions throughout the organization.
Sometimes the two terms ‘coordination’ and ‘c reveals that these two terms do not imply the same thing. There is, in fact, a considerable difference between the two. Cooperation signifies the desire or willingness of people within the organisation to help one another. It is largely the result of voluntary attitudes and spirit of fellow-feeling on the part of organis-ational people or groups of people. By contrast, coordination cannot be achieved voluntarily by the participation of a group of people within the organisation. It requires something more than the willingness or the desire of the persons extending cooperation to one another. Nobel Lau-reate Herbert Simon writes: “Cooperation will be ineffective — will not reach its goal, whatever the intention of the participants — in the absence of coordination”.
D. McFarland has pointed out the difference between coordination and co-operation thus :
“Cooperation is far. More inclusive term embaracing the idea of coopera-tion. Cooperation is mere willingness of individuals to help each other. It cannot be a satisfactory substitute for coordination.
Cooperation is for the most part the result of voluntary attitudes on the part of people in an Coordination, on the other hand, cannot be voluntarily ensured by a number of cooperating persons. Coordination is a state of affairs which an executive brings about through deliberate action on his part. Cooperation is a valuable element in coordination but cannot substitute for it.”
In order to improve the quality of decisions it is important to evaluate them at the time of deciding. One approach, advocated by Norman Maier, is to decide.
Maier suggested managers should evaluate each problem to see how they can increase the effectiveness of decisions by seeing how important it was to have quality and/or acceptance :
The organization structure is the basic framework within which the executive’s decision-making behaviour occurs. The quality and nature of the decisions made are influenced by the nature of the structure.
Organization, as an element of management, is concerned with the grouping of activities in such a manner that enterprise objectives are attained- the assignment of these activities to appropriate departments and the provision for authority, delegation and coordination. It is important to note that, in order to accomplish goals, activities must be grouped logically and authority should be granted so that conflicts do not occur.
(i) OD – Organization Development
(ii) SOBC Model – Stimulus – Organism – Behaviour – Consequence Model
(iii) CSF – Critical Success Factor
(iv) NRF – National Renewal Fund
(v) OJT – On-the-job training
Loyalty implies the faithful dedication of a person to the firm, colleagues and duty without manipulation of second intentions.
It suggests that each communication going up or coming down must follow through control of the employer.
When people are joined together in a group, ‘synergy’ will come into play and this strength of the group will not be a mere arithmetical addition but many more i.e. 1+1 will not be 2 but much more. Group dynamics refers to the forces operating in the group.
It involves discarding the conventional methods and orthodox behavior patterns.
It refers to the limit of number of employees that a superior can effectively manage at a specific time.
According to the National Institute of Personnel Management, “Personnel Management, Labour Management or Staff Management means quite simply the task of dealing with human relationships within an organisation. Academically, the three aspects of Personnel Management are :
Human Resource Management:
There are a variety of methods of selection. An organization must choose the option(s), which it feels, suits its particular needs. The methods of selection may be analysed as follows :
Administration usually refers to the activities of the higher level of the management group who determine major aims and policies. This can be called the broader use of the term which is often used in governmentdepartments ( e.g., the Civil Services). It is also used in the narrower sense of controlling the day-to-day running of the enterprise.
An administrator can also be a manager; this occurs when the administrator is concerned with implementing policy in dealings with employees to whom responsibilities have been delegated.
Brech defines administration as : ‘That part of the management process concerned with the institution and carrying out of procedures by which the programme is laid down and communicated, and the progress of activities is regulated and checked against targets and plans. ‘ Management has even more meanings than administration. Management can mean :
Of these three, the first is preferable, management referring to the process of management. A useful approach is to consider management to be a process whereby a suitable environment is created for effort to be organized to accomplish desired goals.
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