Organisational Behaviour

Organisational Behaviour

This course contains the basics of Organisational Behaviour

Course introduction
Interview Questions
Pragnya Meter Exam

Organisational Behaviour

Stress Management

The existence and importance of stress in industry was first recognised in America in 1956. A machine operator named James Carter cracked up while working on the General Motors production line in Detroit. Mr. Carter had what is now commonly known as a nervous breakdown and he sued General Motors, claiming that the stresses of his job had contributed to his condition. It was an important law suit. Carter won and from that day onwards most executives and all lawyers and the physicians in America took the relationship between stress and industry very seriously indeed. However, executives around the rest of the world have beenslow to recognise the importance of stress in Industry.

Indeed, in some ways it is difficult to blame company executives for failing to understand the importance of ‘stress’ as a trivial problem and laugh at any suggestion that there could be a link between problems in the mind and problems affecting the body.

In the last few years evidence has accumulated from around the world to show that the most common cause of destructive ill health is stress at work. Researchers have not only built up evidence showing links between industrial stresses in general and ill health but have even accumulated evidence showing that it is possible to link specific occupations with specific types of stress induced disease. No one is immune. The man or women on the shop floor is just as vulnerable as the man or women on the board of directors.

In India, the statistics show, the rate of people suffering from the heart-related problems has gone up nine times within the last four decades.

Although there is absolutely no doubt that stress is killing many people, disabling many more and costing industry crores of rupees every year, there is one important question that has to be asked. Why are we so susceptible to stress these days?

The answer to this apparently unanswerable paradox is quite simple. Our bodies were designed a long, long time ago. We were not designed for the sort of world in which we live today. We were designed for a world in which fighting and or running were useful practical solutions to everyday problems. We were designed to cope with physical conformations with sharp-toothed tigers.

The problem is that our environment has changed far more rapidly than we have evolved. We have changed our world far faster than our bodies have been able to adapt. At no other time in the history of the world has there been such a constant progression of ideas and technology. Fashions, themes and attitudes have never changed as rapidly as they have in the last hundred years or so. Never before have expectations and pressures been so great. Revolutionary changes in agriculture, navigation, medicine, military tactics, design, transport, communications and industrial methods have all transformed our world. But our bodies are still the same as they were tens of thousands of years ago. It takes millennia for the human body to adapt. We have moved far too quickly to be good for our bodies.

It is these environmental changes that have made stress more pronounced. These days stress is ubiquitous. None can escape stress. As a matter of fact stress has its origin in the body chemistry which has remained unchanged since the man came on the earth.

Let us take example of the cave man. For him to survive was either a fight or a flight. Whenever there was any life threatening event any action off light or fight, pituitary would give appropriate signals for secreting adrenaline in the blood stream. This resulted in creation of additional energy for the body either to fight or fly. This is known as ‘fight or flight mechanism’.

Following are some of the changes that occur in the body to protect itself from the danger within a few microseconds. These responses of the body to a situation are known as fight or flight mechanism with, interalia, the following bodily responses:

Release of Adrenaline and conversion of glycogen into glucose;

Raised Pulse;

Raised Blood Pressure;

Rapid Breathing;

Dilated Pupils;

Digestion slowed because of diversion of blood supply from stomach to the extremities of the body;

Over million of years the lifestyle has changed; however, the body chemistry has not changed. With the change in the lifestyle, stressors have multiplied and diversified in different forms. However, the body chemistry response has remained the same.

The theory of ‘General Adaptation Syndrome’ states that when an organism is confronted with a threat, the general physiological response occurs in three stages viz. alarm reaction, resistance reaction and state of exhaustion.

Alarm Reaction

The first stage includes an initial “shock phase” in which resistance is lowered, and a “countershock phase” in which defensive mechanism become active. Alarm Reaction is characterised by autonomous excitability; and adrenaline discharge; increased heart rate; muscle tone, and blood content; and gastro-intestinal ulceration. Depending on the nature and intensity of threat and the conditions of the organism the severity of the symptoms may differ from a mild invigoration to disease of adaptation.

Stage of Resistance

Maximum adaptation occurs during this stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction disappear. Resistance increases to levels above normal. If the stress persists, or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, the organism deteriorates to the next stage.

State of Exhaustion: Adaptation energy is exhausted, signs of alarm reaction reappear, and resistance level begins to decline irreversibly the organism collapses.

One of the major shortcomings of this theory is that the related research was carried out on animals where the stressors are usually physical or environmental–and this is not always the case in relation to human organisms. The concept of General Adaptation Syndrome is, therefore, not given weightage in the present days.

Present day human is being compressed by stresses from various sources such as his own psychological and physical make up; the familial demands, the social demands, the demands of the job etc. etc.

Whenever a superior scolds a subordinate, the latter’s body chemistry acts in the same way it did in the cave man when he was threatened by a tiger. Even all his body functions race up to meet the emergency. However, physical emergency there is none. This additional burst of energy is not only useless for him but is harmful. He can neither fight physically with the superior nor leave the place of work. The adrenaline is metabolised. These metabolic changes act on various balancing and self-correcting mechanisms of the body. The result is the psychosomatic diseases.

Stress Definitions

Different definitions of stress occur. Dr. Seyles, an expert in stress management, gives the best definition in stress management. According to him “stress is a non-specific response of the body to situation”.

It is important to remember that the body chemistry does not distinguish between the anxiety causing, pleasant or unpleasant situations. In any of these situations, the body response is the same, resulting in fight or fly mechanism.

The other definitions of stress are :

“Stress is a physiological abnormality at the structural or bio-chemical level caused by overloading experiences.”

“Stress is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological and or behavioural deviations.”

According to Dr. Pestonji of I.I.M. Ahmedabad, the stress can be categorised as under:


This stress is because of the sudden overjoy. Fortunately this type of stress is not longlasting. Furthermore it is a state of happiness. Eustress, therefore, is not harmful, being occasional and fleeting.


This is anti-thesis of eustress. Distress is caused whenever a person is suddenly very sad or angry. Distress is caused because of the demands of the modern life and anxiety to cope with them. This results in feelings of inadequacy, anxiety, nervousness, loss etc. This type of stress is harmful. It is this stress that has caused more havoc in the executive life. It is this stress that justifies the saying “Ulcer is the surest sight of executive success”.

Since it is distress that takes a heavy toll of executive efficiency, the organisations should try to alleviate it. An atmosphere of objectivity and mutual trust would go a long way in reducing distress.

Hyper Work Stress

This type of stress is caused because of the hyper activity and travails of life to meet deadlines etc. Target mindedness and the eleventh hour rush or continuous overwork cause hyper stress. The key therefore, to deal with hyper stress lies in good planning.

Hypo Stress
This type of stress is the opposite of the hyper stress. This stress is caused by less than optimum activity. The effects of hypo stress are slower than other types but are more penetrating and longer lasting. There are examples when the Organisation have deliberately created hypo stress by denying legitimate work to their employees. Such situations, beyond creating stress, deprive a person of the fulfillment of self-esteem needs. More often the retired persons experience this stress. For them it is a transition from hyper to hypo stress. This underlines the necessity of planning the post-retirement period, doing proper time management by planning activities so that an individual remains optimally busy.

The above discussion shows that whatever an individual does or does not so, there is always some sort and some amount of stress on him. This is why stress is known as “non-specific response of the body to the situation.

There are three broad categories of stressors. They are :

  • Organizational stressors;
  • Life stressors; and
  • Personal stressors.

Organisational stressors

Organisational membership is a dominant source of stress. The concept of organizational stress was first evolved in the classic work of Kahn et al. They were the earliest to draw attention to organisational stress in general and role stress in particular.

Some of the organisational stressors are intrinsic to the job. They are boredom, time pressures and deadliness, exorbitant work demands and technical problems.

Some organisational stressors relate to the role in the Organisation. They are role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload etc.

Some organisational stressors relate to the organizational structure and the climate. They are lack of participation in the decision-making, lack of responsiveness and appreciation, pressers towards conformity etc.

Life stressors

Life stressors can be catagorised in three classes.They are:

  • Life changes
  • Daily stressors
  • Life trauma

Personal stressors

Personal stressors relate to the personal health and the familial life of an individual.They are like menopause or male menopause,commuting problems,reduced self-confidence as a result of aging etc.

Management of Stress

Since the stress affects an individual in his body and mind, it is that individual who is to do something about his stress. The diagram below gives the strategies that can be adopted by an individual to cope with stress.

Stress: Personal coping strategies

Know your personality type

Recognition is half the solution.

Know your personality type

Stress can affect different people in different ways. The most fully developed individual relating specifically to stress is the distinction between type A and type B personality profiles.

Type A people are the people who create unnecessary stress for themselves. On the contrary type B people are the ones who are mild mannered and take the life as it comes. Type B persons are not stress prone individuals. However people are not purely type A or type B; instead people tend toward one or the other type. Also the relationship between personality and health problems (such as heart disease) is unclear.

Recognition is half the solution

One must remember an important facet of stress. Most of the time a person does not understand that he is under stress. How do you recognise that you are under stress? Self report measure provide clear indication that people who know us closely and observe us frequently can say with certain degree of accuracy, whether we are under stress or not. To the question “Did anyone tell you that you are under stress?” Most of the executives reported that it is their wives who told them that they are under stress. A relatively less number said it was their friends and collagues who could correctly detect that they are under stress. Correct detection is possible by these people because of some specific symptoms when stress still operates at behavioural and psychosomatic level. Awareness of these symptoms will help us to recognize when we are under stress.

Some Behavioural Symptoms of Stress are:

  • Low productivity, decreased work performance;
  • Tendency to remain absent from work;
  • Much of interpersonal conflict;
  • Tendency to remain isolated;
  • Sudden change in habit (clothing, eating, drinking);
  • Talking around a subject;
  • Poor eye contact while talking;
  • Making others look ridiculous;
  • Brooding; feeling worthless;
  • Frequent references to death, suicide etc.
  • Some Psychosomatic Symptoms of Stress are:
  • Sleep disturbance;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Stress diabetes;
  • Bowel irritation;
  • Back ache;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Sexual dysfunction.

Love your body

Our body is the vehicle that enables to perceive, understand the world. It is because of our body that we are known in this world. It is through our body that we experience the world. It is only when we love our body that we will take proper care of it. Loving is not pampering. The following are some tips to deal with stress by making our body strong.

Have a regular medical checkup

Unfortunately we Indians are not health conscious. A regular medical check is a preventive measure, especially when one is beyond forties. It is advisable that if a person is below 40 he must have a medical checkup at least once a year. Beyond 45th year of age the health checkup should be at least twice a year.

Do exercise regularly

To effectively cope with stress a healthy body is a must. One can raise defenses against stress by regular exercises. One may take any type of exercise. The exercise of walking is the best for all the ages. Walking as an exercise should be minimally five to six kilometres at a stretch at the speed not less than one and a half kilometres per minute. For a person beyond thirty-five strenuous exercise is contra indicated.

Don’t touch tobacco

The medical research has amply demonstrated that tobacco is carcinogenic substance. The research also tells that passive smoking is more harmful than active smoking.

Do mind what you

  1. Eat : One must be careful about what one eats. What we are largely depends on what we eat. As far as possible oily and pungent food be avoided. This has tendency to cause more secretion of digestive acids, which erode the mucus membrane of the stomach. This results in ulceration. It is also better if one avoids eating non-vegetarian food which is rich in calories and cholesterol and lack fiber.
  2. Drink : Drink minimally three to four litres of water daily. Avoid alcoholic beverages. Alcohol contains calories but has no food value. Especially the use of tobacco with alcohol is injurious to health.

Love your mind

We have already said that the happy as well as unhappy situations cause secretion of adrenaline. The remedy is to keep the mind tranquil. It is realised that keeping the mind tranquil is easily said than done. The Indian tradition has always been stressing importance of meditation. The idea is that in meditation a person takes away his mind for some time from the usual surroundings, which serves as a respite. In the modern times many new therapies of meditation have come. The Western countries are so-much convinced of the utility of meditation as a way of keeping the mind tranquil that some firms have reserved separate rooms for meditation for their executives. In India the organisations are slow to catch up with this. None-the-less it can be practised at the individual levels.

Organisational Strategies for managing employee stress

Create supportive organisational climate;

Convince employees that their contributions are significant;

Rotate employees out of potentially stressful positions and do not allow them to overwork;

Organise training programs to help employees cope with stress provide employee counselling.