Having identified the focal points of concentration, the manager’s immediate job is to implement change. Here he confronts a biggest challenge through resistance by the employees. Nadler and Tushman assert that any change encounters three problems in implementation. They are resistance, power and control.These problems, their implications and the various action steps are presented in the table below.
Implement the change by changing structure:
The changing technology and especially computer has profound influence on the organization structure and its employees. It results in more mechanistic organisation structure. Since departments tend to be consolidated, work span gets reduced; functional departmentation replaces divisions, resulting in a centralized control. At the other rungs it results in more routine jobs as well as more automated jobs in which workers’ interaction is less and infrequent. Structure-focused change efforts changes primarily include:
Implement the change by Changing Technology:
Automation is the thing in today’s organisations.Also the automation may relate not only to the manufacturing processes but it would also affect the technology relating to decision making process and other internal processes, practices, procedures etc.Technology focused changes comprise:
A change in the organisation requires a corresponding change in the individual’s personality. Changing personality is a challenging task because the basic personality factors are usually formed and developed in the early childhood of the employee. A commonly accepted model for bringing about change in people was suggested by Kurt Lewin in terms of three-phase process — unfreezing — moving i.e. changing — refreezing.
Lewin’ s model provides a useful vehicle for understanding change process in the organisation.
It refers to making individual aware that the present behaviour is inappropriate, irrelevant, inadequate and hence unsuitable to the changing demands of the present situation. Unfreezing is the breaking down of the existing mores, old taboos and traditions, the habitual ways of doing things, so that the people are ready to accept new alternatives. It involves, discarding the orthodox and conventional methods and introducing a new dynamic behaviour that is most appropriate to the situation.
Moving i.e. changing:
It is the phase where new learning occurs. When the individuals are convinced that their behaviour is inappropriate they come forward to accept the change.
In order to change, it is not enough to sense that the current behaviour is inadequate. The necessary condition is that various alternatives of behaviour must also be made available in order to fill the vacuum created by unfreezing phase. During this phase of ‘changing’, individuals learn to behave in new ways; the individuals are provided with alternatives out of which to choose the best one.
Kelman elaborately explains this ‘moving’ phase in terms of compliance, identification and internalization.
Refreezing refers to the stage where the change becomes an integral part of the system. It also refers to discarding the throwing away the old practices, procedures, technology etc. During this phase individuals internalize the new beliefs, feelings and behaviour learned in the ‘changing’ phase. That is to say a person accepts the new behaviour as a permanent part of his behaviour. He has to practice and experiment with the new methods of behaviour and see that the behaviour effectively blends with his other behavioural attitudes. It is very important for the manager concerned with introducing change to visualize that the new behaviour is not extinguished soon.
People focused changes can also be made through the following techniques:
Follow-up on the Change :
Management of change is incomplete without proper follow-up. Organisation must evaluate the effects of change. Objectives must be present and be compared with the performance to see the degree of success in change. End results should be operationally defined and measurements must be done both before and after the implementation of change. This enables the manager or change agent, to monitor and evaluate the performance after the introduction of change with the one prior to it. The manager must make sure that the change is implemented in such a fashion as to maximize the benefits to the organisation.
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