Let us understand the importance and nature of attitude. Learn and understand the difference between the attitude, opinion, value etc. and many more in this segment.
Nature of Attitude
An attitude may be defined as a tendency to react positively or negatively in regard to an object. For example, a person who has a positive attitude towards the religion is likely to enjoy going to worship services, believe that the religious institutions fosters morality, and may, therefore, contribute to its financial support.
An attitude is always directed toward some object, such as the temple, school etc. The object may be of general social significance, such as labour-management relations, or it may be purely personal, such as a feeling about playing cricket or football. Moreover, the object of an attitude may be as abstract as the philosophy of re-birth or as concrete as a car. An attitude is a tendency to react in a certain way. That is, a person who has an attitude has a readiness or a disposition to react favorably or unfavorably to anyone of a large variety of related situations. Until some situation arouses it, however, the attitude is latent. For example, a man who has a patriotic attitude toward his country is not continuously aroused about it. But his patriotic attitude arouses his country is threatened from an external aggression or if the National Anthem is sung, and so on.
Attitudes are for or against things. We tend to have favorable attitudes toward sources of gratification and unfavorable attitudes toward sources of punishment and frustration. It is possible, of course, that our attitudes toward an object may not be uniformly favorable or unfavorable. For example, we may admire and respect American technical accomplishments and yet resent other aspects of its system.
Arousal of attitude
If an event appears to maintain, attain, or foster movement toward what one value, then this event will tend to arouse positive reactions. Accordingly, a person who identifies with the goals of management would react positively to legislation or proposal to restrict unionism. If an event appears to destroy, prevent attainment of, or otherwise endanger what one value, then this event will tend to arouse negative reactions. Accordingly a person who identifies with the goals of labor unions would react negatively to legislation or proposal to restrict trade unionism.
The stronger an attitude, less the stimulation which is necessary to arouse it. Let us assume that the following items constitute an ascending scale of stimulation of attitude arousal for a person who has an unfavorable attitude toward labour unions:
For a person who has a weakly unfavorable attitude toward labor unions, perhaps only items ‘D’ would produce much of an attitudinal reaction. On the other hand, for a person who has an intensely anti-union attitude, item B and even A would be capable of arousing the attitude. The stronger one’s attitude, the greater the probability of arousal of the attitude. Or the wider the range of stimulus situations which are capable of arousing it, for example, those who have strong attitudes, either favorable or unfavorable, in regard to untouchability are likely to be aroused by a wider range of situations than are those who have weak attitudes. An aroused attitude consists of three categories of internal (implicit, covert) responses. These consist of affective (emotional), reactions, cognition’s (thoughts, perceptual reactions, judgements), and action tendencies.
The latter are actually motives for doing particular things. To illustrate, suppose that we consider someone’s internal reactions to situations involving higher education. He likes (affective reaction) the company of well-educated people, enjoys (affective reaction) spending time in the university library, believes (cognition) that industrial society depends upon what universities do, judges (cognition) that college professors are capable people, and wants (action tendency) to contribute to a campaign to raise the university endowment. Thus an aroused attitude can be regarded as having affective, cognitive, and action components.
The set of implicit responses that is aroused on a particular occasion depends upon the person and the stimulus situations. Sometimes we have strong emotional reactions to a situation but lack definite beliefs and action tendencies in relation to it. For example, we might deeply resent a foreigner’s blast against our country’s policies but not have any systematic beliefs about the significance of his actions or any definite action tendencies. In some people affective reactions and beliefs may play a large part in their religious attitudes while their action tendencies are minimal.
The greater the degree of arousal of the affective component of an attitude, the greater the strength of reaction to other attitude-related stimuli. If a person is already stirred up about something relevant to an attitude, he will tend to react to some new attitude stimulus more strongly than he would otherwise do. A community that is angry about a “communal incident” will be likely to be sensitized to new threats to its values. It is not even necessary that the affective arousal be related to an attitudinally relevant stimulus for its effect to occur.
Attitudes and Values
Value is defined as a “concept of the desirable, an internalised criterion or standard of evaluation a person possesses.” Such concepts and standards are relatively few and determine our guide an individual’s evaluations of the many objects encountered in everyday life. Values are tinged with moral flavour, involving an individual’s judgment of what is right, good or desirable. Thus values –
There are differences between values and attitudes. Attitudes essentially represent predisposition to respond. Values focus on the judgment of what ought to be. This judgment can represent the specific manifestation of a determining tendency below the surface of the behaviour. Attitudes represent several beliefs focussed on a specific object or situation.Value,on the other hand, represents a single belief that transcendentally guides actions and judgments across objects and situations. Finally, a value stands in relation to some social or cultural standards or norms while attitudes are mostly personal experiences. There are similarities between values and attitudes. Both are powerful instruments influencing cognitive process and behaviour of people. Both are learned and acquired from the same source – experiences with people and objects. Values and attitudes are relatively permanent and resistant to change. Finally, values and attitudes influence each, other and are, more often than not, used interchangeable.
Attitude and Opinions
An opinion is an expression of an evaluative judgment or point of view regarding a specific topic or subject. An attitude is somewhat generalized (such as liking or not liking a person‘s supervisor), whereas an opinion typically is an interpretation regarding a specific matter– (such as saying that the boss plays favorites in granting promotions). Opinions, however, typically are influenced by the more generalized attitude. The facts or observations within an individual experiences are interpreted in the light of his attitudes. Thus, if an engineer calls the attention of his work group to the fact that some of the safety rules have been violated, one person (who has an “unfavorable” attitude toward the engineer) might later- express the opinion to one of his colleagues that the engineer is “just picking on us”. Another person (who has a “favorable” attitude toward the engineer) might later express the opinion that the engineer is simply trying to keep us from getting our fingers cut off.”
Attitude, Beliefs and Ideology
A belief is a judgment about something. For example, a belief that the world is round is a judgement about its form. Many of our beliefs, of course, are emotionally neutral; others are definitely favorable or unfavorable toward some object. For example, a favorable attitude toward the religion may involve beliefs that the religion helps to curb delinquency, that worshippers are better citizens than are non-devotees, that people who stay away from temples are unhappy and immoral, and so on.
When beliefs become organized into systems, they are called ideologies. The capitalist ideology, for example, is a set of beliefs that a free enterprise economy is maximally productive; that competition in the long run brings down prices and raises quality; and that events in the marketplace do and should determine what is produced. Related to this is a disbelief system – the set of beliefs, which one rejects. An individual committed to capitalist ideology would disbelieve that industry can be run efficiently without the profit system; that people will work primarily out of a desire to serve others; or that public ownership of all utilities is necessary for the common good.
There are ideologies pertaining to all the major institutions of society, such as the family, the law, the government, and the economic system. Although these ideologies are difficult to verify, we feel strongly about them and, as long as things go well, have great confidence in them. They give us an interpretation and a justification for our practices. Like religion, they are matters of faith. They give us an interpretation and a justification for our practices. Like religion, they are matters of faith. They give us social definition of reality. It is an interesting thing about human behaviour that some of the beliefs that we hold most tenaciously with the strongest feelings are not readily subject to proof or disproof.
Attitude and Prejudice
A prejudice is defined as an attitude that is emotionally resistant to being changed. Prejudices are strongly entrenched and vigorously defended, if threatened. They are acquired in the same way as other attitudes. They are supported by differences in relative privileges, fear, and certain personality factors.
Characteristics of Attitudes :
Attitude can be characterized by their –
The question often arises “Where do attitudes come from?” Attitudes are basically learned. People are not born with specific attitudes; rather they acquire them through the “process of sources of attitudes are learning”. Attitudes reflect a person’s previous reinforcement history. The sources of a person’s attitude are a mixture of –
Organisational Behaviour Related Tutorials
|HR Management Tutorial||Principles of Management and Organisational Behaviour Tutorial|
|Employee Supervision Tutorial||Performance Management Tutorial|
|Organizational Design Tutorial|
Organisational Behaviour Related Interview Questions
|HR Management Interview Questions||Principles of Management and Organisational Behaviour Interview Questions|
|Job Evaluation Interview Questions||Leadership Interview Questions|
|Organization & Management Fundamentals Interview Questions||Organizational Culture Interview Questions|
|Talent Management Interview Questions||Performance Management Interview Questions|
|Organizational Design Interview Questions|
Organisational Behaviour Related Practice Tests
|HR Management Practice Tests||Job Evaluation Practice Tests|
|Leadership Practice Tests||Organization & Management Fundamentals Practice Tests|
|Organizational Culture Practice Tests|
Organisational Behaviour Tutorial
Introduction To Organizational Behaviour
Understanding The Organizational Behaviour
Personality And Attitudes
Motivation: The Whys Of Human Behaviour
Work Motivation Theories
Work And Conditions Of Work
Management Of Organisational Change
All rights reserved © 2018 Wisdom IT Services India Pvt. Ltd
Wisdomjobs.com is one of the best job search sites in India.