Oracle ADF Interview Questions & Answers

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Oracle ADF Interview Questions & Answers

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Oracle ADF Interview Questions

Oracle ADF Interview Questions
    1. Question 1. Why Adf?

      Answer :

      Oracle ADF is state of the art technology to rapidly build enterprise application. ADF is a mature J2EE development framework and many other products under Oracle Fusion Middleware stack are build upon ADF 11g.

      ADF (Application Development Framework) provides variety of inbuilt components that minimizes the need to write code allowing users to focus more on features and business aspects of the application. With WebCenter and SOA plugins, we can also integrate WebCenter Services and SOA into your application making it rich and extensible.

    2. Question 2. Explain About Adf Lifecylce?

      Answer :

      ADF Lifecycle has Nine phases as follows:

      1) Initialize Context : In this phase value of associated request, binding container and lifecycle are set.

      2) Prepare Model : In this phase model is prepared and initialized. In this phase page parameters are set and methods in the executable section of the page definition of the ADF page are executed.

      3)Apply Input Values : This phase handles the request parameters. These may come by adding the request parameters in the URL or as a result of HTML form post action. A list of events is build using these request parameters. These are actually mapped to the bindings in the pageDef. This phase resolves the list of request parameters bind to attributes in the page def. This results into a list of updatedValues which is used in Update Model phase.

      4) Validate Input Values : This phase validates the list of values built in the Apply input values field with model.

      5) Update Model : After validation of input values data model is updated with the list of values created in apply input values phase.

      6) Validate Model Updates : Updates in the previous phase are then validated by calling the associated lifecycle’s binding container .

      7) Process Component Updates : This phase handles any events in the list built during the apply input values phase. Named events as well as all the events tied to the databindings created in the pagdef are handled in this phase.

      8) Metadata Commit : This phase commits the runtime metadata changes to the model. This phase is always executed before prepare render phase.

      9) Prepare Render : This is the final phase where page is sent for rendering. prepareRender event is sent to all the registered listeners. This notification signals bindings to prepare or process the data for rendering. Binding container is also refreshed. This helps in updating any changes that happened during validation phases.

    3. Question 3. What Is Partial Page Rendering?

      Answer :

      PPR is Partial Page Rendering, similarly to Ajax. It is used to dynamically refresh the part of page.It is done with the use of partial triggers. For a component to trigger another component to refresh, the trigger component must cause a submit when an appropriate action takes place.

      Following three main component attributes are used to enable partial page rendering:

      autoSubmit: When the autoSubmit attribute of an input or select component is set to true, and an appropriate action takes place (such as a value change), the component automatically submits the form it is enclosed in.

      partialSubmit: When the partialSubmit attribute of a command component is set to true, clicking the button or link causes the page to be partially submitted.

      partialTriggers: All rendered components support the partialTriggers attribute. Use this attribute to list the IDs of components whose change events are to trigger this component to be refreshed.

    4. Question 4. What Is A Phase Listener?

      Answer :

      The Oracle ADF lifecycle integrates with the JavaServer Faces request lifecycle, adding all that it takes to set up the binding context, prepare the binding container, validate and update the ADF model, persist MDS changes and prepare the response.

      Developers who need to listen and interact with the request cycle may use an ADF Phase Listener to do so. Unlike the Phase Listener you define in the faces-config.xml file, the ADF Phase Listener allows you to listen to the standard and the ADF phases.The ADF Phase Listener is defined in Java – of course – and configured in the adf-settings.xml file you need to create.

      ADF PagePhaseListener can be used always and for anything

      In Oracle ADF framework developer can use standard JSF listener or special ADF listener which supports additional ADF-specific page cycle extensions. Listeners can be used to customize the ADF Lifcycle.

    5. Question 5. What Are Validators And Convertors In Adf?

      Answer :

      validators :

      If somehow you need to create your own validation logic to meet your business needs. You can either create a validation method on the page’s backing bean (if you want custom validation for a component on a single page), or create JSF validator classes (if you want to reuse the validation logics by various pages in the application).In the real world, of course creating the custom JSF validator classes would be adopted for ADF application for better reuse and maintantence.

      convertors :

      converters are used for converting the values from one type to another,like decimal to bigdecimal or from string to date or date to string.

    6. Question 6. Explain About Adf Event Handling?

      Answer :

      In traditional JSF applications, event handling typically takes place on the server. JSF event handling is based on the JavaBeans event model, where event classes and event listener interfaces are used by the JSF application to handle events generated by components.

      Examples of user events in an application include clicking a button or link, selecting an item from a menu or list, and changing a value in an input field. When a user activity occurs such as clicking a button, the component creates an event object that stores information about the event and identifies the component that generated the event. The event is also added to an event queue. At the appropriate time in the JSF lifecycle, JSF tells the component to broadcast the event to the appropriate registered listener, which invokes the listener method that processes the event. The listener method may trigger a change in the user interface, invoke backend application code, or both.

      Like standard JSF components, ADF Faces command components deliver ActionEvent events when the components are activated, and ADF Faces input and select components deliver ValueChangeEvent events when the component local values change.

    7. Question 7. Explain Role Of Javascript In Adf?

      Answer :

      The ADF Faces architecture is designed such that application developers don’t need to write JavaScript code themselves for most of the use cases they build. JavaScript in ADF Faces applications therefore should be used as an exception rather than the rule.

    8. Question 8. Difference Between Backing Beans And Managed Beans?

      Answer :

      Backing beans are JavaBeans components associated with UI components used in a page. Backing-bean management separates the definition of UI component objects from objects that perform application-specific processing and hold data.

      Backing Beans are merely a convention, a subtype of JSF Managed Beans which have a very particular purpose. There is nothing special in a Backing Bean that makes it different from any other managed bean apart from its usage.What makes a Backing Bean is the relationship it has with a JSF page; it acts as a place to put component references and Event code.

      Backing Beans : A backing bean is any bean that is referenced by a form. Backing Beans should be defined only in the request scope

      Managed Beans : A managed bean is a backing bean that has been registered with JSF (in faces-config.xml) and it automatically created (and optionally initialized) by JSF when it is needed. The advantage of managed beans is that the JSF framework will automatically create these beans, optionally initialize them with parameters you specify in faces-config.xml.

    9. Question 9. What Is Adfc And Adfm?

      Answer :

      ADFc-ADF Controller :

      ADFc:The controller component in ADF is an extension of the JSF navigation model and promotes modularization and reuse. In addition, ADFc provides declarative transaction handling and clearly defined process boundaries.

       ADFm-ADF model :

      ADFm The binding layer and model are represented by data controls and the binding container object. ADFm is built on JSR-227 and abstracts the view layer model access from the implementation details of the underlying business service.

    10. Question 10. What Is The Role Of Web.xml, Adfc-config.xml , Faces-config.xml?

      Answer :

      web.xml:

      Part of a JSF application's configuration is determined by the contents of its Java EE application deployment descriptor, web.xml. The web.xml file, which is located in the /WEB-INF directory, defines everything about your application that a server needs to know (except the root context path, which is automatically assigned for you in JDeveloper, or assigned by the system administrator when the application is deployed). Typical runtime settings in the web.xmlfile include initialization parameters, custom tag library location, and security settings.

      The following is configured in the web.xmlfile for all applications that use ADF Faces:

      • Context parameter javax.faces.STATE_SAVING_METHOD set to client
      • MyFaces Trinidad filter and mapping
      • MyFacesTrinidad resource servlet and mapping
      • JSF servlet and mapping

      adfc-config.xml:

      The adfc-config.xml file is the default page flow diagram JDeveloper provided when you created an application based on the Fusion Web Application (ADF) template. adfc-config.xml is the default file name for an unbounded task flow. On this diagram, you can create a new page based on the template, which is not part of the existing orders-flow task flow.

      faces-config.xml:

      The JSF configuration file is where you register a JSF application's resources such as custom validators and managed beans, and define all the page-to-page navigation rules. While an application can have any JSF configuration file name, typically the file name is the faces-config.xml file. Small applications usually have one faces-config.xml file.When you use ADF Faces components in your application, JDeveloper automatically adds the necessary configuration elements for you into faces-config.xml

      adf-settings.xml: The adf-settings.xml file holds project- and library-level settings such as ADF Faces help providers and caching/compression rules. The configuration settings for the adf-settings.xml files are fixed and cannot be changed during and after application deployment. There can be multiple adf-settings.xml files in an application. ADF settings file users are responsible for merging the contents of their configurations.

    11. Question 11. What Are Taskflows?

      Answer :

      ADF task flows provide a modular approach for defining control flow in an application. Instead of representing an application as a single large JSF page flow, you can break it up into a collection of reusable task flows. Each task flow contains a portion of the application's navigational graph. The nodes in the task flows are activities. An activity node represents a simple logical operation such as displaying a page, executing application logic, or calling another task flow. The transactions between the activities are called control flow cases.

    12. Question 12. What Are Various Scopes In Adf.explain Difference Between Pageflow Scope, Backing Bean Scope, Session Scope, View Scope, Request Scope, Application Scope?

      Answer :

      In addition to the normal object scopes that jsf (1.2) defines, adf adds some more on top of it. I will try to differentiate the different memory scopes available in adf.

      Application Scope: Just like a static object in java. Single Object available to all users. Gets instantiated when server starts.

      Session Scope: Your normal session variables. used to store the data specific to a specific user to be used during a session.

      PageFlow Scope: Simply a value once set in a page flow scope is available in all the pages that are part of the taskflow.

      Request Scope: Now this is good. Lets say on one page we have a number of components like a button, LOVs , input boxes etc. To clearly understand the request scope lets say we select a drop down. Clicking on the drop down sends a request to the server and the page stays as it is. So each action basically here is a request to the server and the values stored in the request scope changes on each request. Request scope doesn’t mean the entire page has to change or get submitted. ADF Faces is built on Ajax and clicking on LOVs and buttons at times generate partial submits.

      View Scope: Values set in the view scope area available on till that page it rendering. One you change from one page to another the value is lost.

    13. Question 13. Why Is Adf Better From Jsf And Advantages Of Adf Over Other Frameworks.?

      Answer :

      ADF Task Flows: extension of the JSF controller layer that adds complete process flow and reusability aspects.

      From User prospective:

      •  Rich interface.
      •  Easy to use and/or learn to use.
      •  Much information on single page (accordion layout, collapsible panel, and so forth).
      •  Consistent look and feel.
      •  Drag and Drop facility, etc.

      From Developer prospective:

      Declarative way of building application.
       150+ ready to use Rich component.
       Multiply ways to develop and reuse components (declarative component, page template, taskflows, etc.)
       Customizable
       Maintainable
       Highly decoupled
       SOA enable, And so forth.

    14. Question 14. Any Idea What Are Contextual Events?

      Answer :

      Often a page or a region within a page needs information from somewhere else on the page or from a different region. While you can pass parameters to obtain that information, doing so makes sense only when the parameters are well known and the inputs are EL-accessible to the page. Parameters are also useful when a task flow may need to be restarted if the parameter value changes.

      However, suppose you have a task flow with multiple page fragments that contain various interesting values that could be used as input on one of the pages in the flow. If you were to use parameters to pass the value, the task flow would need to surface output parameters for the union of each of the interesting values on each and every fragment. Instead, for each fragment that contains the needed information, you can define a contextual event that will be raised when the page is submitted. The page or fragment that requires the information can then subscribe to the various events and receive the information through the event.

      Contextual Events is an Oracle ADF feature that enables developers to implement view-to-region, region-to-view, and region-to-region communication. Among the options for passing information to and from regions, Contextual Events is the most powerful and the option that does not make regions refresh or require the referenced bounded task flow to restart.

    15. Question 15. Explain Adfbc Architecture.?

      Answer :

      Any J2EE application has up to three separate logcal tiers :

      1. A client tier containing code that runs on the client and with which a user interacts
      2. A web tier containing code that generates a user interface on an application server
      3. A business tier containing the business logic

      ADF BC is a java and XML bases framework for developing :

      • Business logic, including validation and default logic
      • Queries
      • Transaction handling
      • Data access

    16. Question 16. What Advantages Does Adfbc Gives?

      Answer :

      It does not create a user interface, but is a pure encapsulation of business logic that communicates with a separate client application, which handles user interaction.

      The advantage of ADF BC over UI-enforced business logic is reusability.

      By maintaining a cache of data in memory, ADF BC reduces the number of database trips required by an application resulting in improved performance and scalability.

      Removing the business logic out of the database keeps the database from handling anything but data, which increases an application's modularity and efficiency.

      Entity objects, view objects, and application modules each have two parts: a Java class file and an XML file. The files have different purposes. ADF BC is a framework, this means that much of its functionality is contained in a set of libraries. ADF BC classes extend (subclass) the base classes provided by these libraries to provide complex business logic, which requires the procedural power of Java to implement.

    17. Question 17. Explain Role Of Vo, Eo And Am?

      Answer :

      Entity object: An entity object represents a row in a database table. You can compare it with an EJB in J2EE world. It simplifies modifying table row data by handling all data manipulation language (DML) operations for you. It can encapsulate business logic for the row and all DML goes via entity object so you can ensure that your business rules are consistently enforced. You associate an entity object with another entity object to reflect relationships in the underlying database schema. The relationship between two EOs is called Entity Association.

      View object: A view object represents a SQL query. You use the full power of the familiar SQL language to join, filter, sort, and aggregate data into exactly the shape required by the end-user task. When end users modify data in the user interface, your view objects delegate the work to entity objects to consistently validate and save the changes. You can create view level relationships between different view objects and it is called as View Link.

      View Links are useful when you have master-child hierarchies and you want to reflect that in the data visible to your client.

      Application module: An application module is the transactional component that clients use to work with application data. It defines an updatable data model and top-level procedures and functions (called service methods) related to a logical unit of work related to an end-user task. Application Modules include one or move View Objects, along with their associated View Links.

    18. Question 18. Can We Write Adf Applications On A Webservice?

      Answer :

      Yes

    19. Question 19. What Is Am Pooling? Do We Need To Write Jdbc Queries Now To Communicate With Adf?

      Answer :

      At its most simple, an application module pool is a collection of instances of a single application module type which are shared by multiple application clients. For example, the ADF Toy Store application has an application module named toystore.model.services.ToyStoreService. An application module pool supporting the Toy Store demo would have one or more instances of this application module component in it, based on the number of users that are visiting the site.

      This pool of AM instances is shared by multiple browser clients whose typical "think time" between submitting web pages allows optimizing the number of AM components to be effectively smaller than the total number of "active" users working on the system. That is, twenty users shopping the web site from their browser might be able to be serviced by 5 or 10 application module instances instead of having as many AM instances as you have browser users.

      Application module components can be used to support web application scenarios that are completely stateless, or they can be used to support a unit of work which spans multiple browser pages.

      At any one moment in time, the instances of application modules in the pool are logically partitioned into three groups, reflecting their state:

      Unconditionally available for use Available for use, but referenced for session affinity reuse by an active user session XYZ Unavailable, inasmuch as it's currently in use (at that very moment!) by some thread in the web container.

    20. Question 20. What Are Data Controls? What Types Of Data Controls Are You Aware Of?

      Answer :

      A data control is essentially a bridge that makes data from a source available to the user interface in an ADF Fusion Web Application. You can use the objects in the data control to create databound user interface components.

      The most commonly used types of data controls include the following :

       ADF Business Components Data Control :This type of data control is generated by JDeveloper when you create an application module in your ADF Business Components application.

      JavaBean Data Control : This type of data control obtains the structure of the data from POJOs (plain, old Java objects).To create a JavaBean data control, right-click a Java class file (in the Application Navigator), and choose Create Data Control.

      EJB Data Control : The EJB data control is essentially the same as the JavaBean data control, except that it uses features inherent in the EJB architecture to obtain the structure of the data.You can create an EJB data control from the New Gallery. Expand the Business Tier node, select Data Controls, choose EJB Data Control, and click OK.

      URL Service Data Control : A URL service data control lets you access and consume the data stream from a specified URL. This type of data control is not updateable.You can create a URL Service data control from the New Gallery. Expand the Business Tier node, select Data Controls, choose URL Service Data Control, and click OK.

      Web Service Data Control : A Web Service data control obtains the structure of the data from the WSDL for a web service.You can create a Web Service data control from the New Gallery. Expand the Business Tier node, select Data Controls, choose Web Service Data Control, and click OK.

      JMX Data Control : A JMX data control obtains the structure of the JMX MBeans from an MBean Server. You can create a JMX data control from the New Gallery. Expand the Business Tier node, select Data Controls, choose JMX Data Control, and click OK. For more information about creating a JMX data control, see the online help for the Create JMX Data Control wizard. Before you can create a JMX data control, you must first have a JMX connection.

      Placeholder Data Control : A placeholder data control is a special type of data control that doesn't require a traditional data structure. As the name implies, it is a placeholder that can be used during UI development, and then replaced with the real data control when it becomes available.

    21. Question 21. What Is Policy Store And Identity Store In Oid?

      Answer :

      Identity Store is used to store information about users and groups while the Policy Store is used to store information about security policies.

    22. Question 22. What Is The Difference Between Databindings.cpx And Datacontrol.dcx?

      Answer :

      The DataBindings.cpx file contains the Oracle ADF binding context for your entire application and provides the metadata from which the Oracle ADF binding objects are created at runtime. The DataControls.dcx file is created when you register data controls on the business services. This file is not generated for Oracle ADF Business Components. It identifies the Oracle ADF model layer data control classes(factory classes) that facilitate the interaction between the client and the available business service.

    23. Question 23. What Is The Difference Between Trinidad.config And Trinidad.skins?

      Answer :

      trinidad.config file is created when you create a webcenter portal application. This is used to register the skin-family you are going to use for your entire application. Trinidad. skins is used when we use skin as a Jar file. This file provides a mapping between the Skin Id and the actual path where the skin exists.

    24. Question 24. What Is Binding Context And Binding Container?

      Answer :

      Binding context is a runtime map between the data controls and page definition of pages in the application which is used to access the binding layer. It is accessible through the EL expression in your jspx pages. Binding container is a request-scoped map that is used to instantiate the page bindings. This is accessible through the EL expressions. Also, since it is request-scoped map, it is accessible during every page request.

    25. Question 25. What Are The Different Types Of Bindings In Adf?

      Answer :

      ADF contains the following types of bindings:

      Attribute Bindings: This is the binding to retrieve the value of a single view attribute in the iterator binding’s current view row. For eg; #{bindings.CustomerId.InputValue}

      Tree Bindings: This is used for tables, tree-tables and trees. It is used to expose rows of a table in the iterator binding’s current range. Eg; All Customers-#{bindings.AllCustomers.labels.CustomerId}

      Action Bindings: This binding type is used when buttons or command links are dropped on the user interface and require an action to be performed on them. We can use data control operations on them, for eg, Create, Delete, First, Last, Commit, Rollback etc.

      Method Bindings: This binding is used when you want to use custom methods to be executed.

      Iterator Binding: This binding is created by the application to access the ADF binding context. It contains a reference to the page bound data collection, helps access it and iterates over its data objects.

    26. Question 26. What Is The Difference Between An Action And An Action Listener?

      Answer :

      Actions are designed for business logic and participate in navigation handling, whereas action listeners typically perform user interface logic and do not participate in navigation handling.

      Basically the "action" attribute refers to an action method which returns a String from which the Faces navigation model can use to decide whether or not a navigation is necessary based on the value of the string.

      An actionlistener method compared to an action method does not return a String. Instead it returns void. It is basically identical to the action method but instead it just executes the code after an action event (button click or link click) but a navigation is not needed.

      Action listener is a class that wants to be notified when a command component fires an action event.

    27. Question 27. What Is A View Scope?

      Answer :

      A view-state allocates a new viewScope when it enters. This scope may be referenced within the view-state to assign variables that should live for the duration of the state. This scope is useful for manipulating objects over a series of requests from the same view.

    28. Question 28. What Is The Difference Between Visible Property And Render Property?

      Answer :

      The visible property is set to true/false based on the requirement whether we want to see the field on the page or not at run time. The field or component still exists on the page, though hidden.

      The render property is used to conditionally load the component based on a criteria.

    29. Question 29. How Do You Define Pagination In Adf?

      Answer :

      We define custom pagination in ADF by creating a custom table as a taskflow using the af:iterator tag. This renders the collection of data just as a table renders it. Now we bind the value property of iterator to collection model from ADF bindings declaration and set the number of visible row to, say 15.

    30. Question 30. What Are Valuators’ And Converters?

      Answer :

      Valuators’ and Convertors are used to provide conversion and validation capabilities to the ADF input components respectively.

      Converters convert the values on ADF forms to the type in which the application accepts them after the values are edited on the form and submitted.

      Valuators’ are used to impose validations on the input components.

    31. Question 31. What Is The Life Cycle Of Jsf?

      Answer :

      Restore View : The request comes to the FacesServet controller which extracts the viewed from this request.

      Apply request values: The purpose of the apply request values phase is for each component to retrieve its current state. The components must first be retrieved or created from the FacesContext object, followed by their values.

      Process validations: This phase makes use of the validators to validate the validation rules on the fields..

      Update model values: In this phase JSF updates the actual values of the server-side model ,by updating the properties of your backing beans.

      Invoke application: Here the JSF controller invokes the application action to handle Form submissions.

      Render response: In this phase JSF displays the view with all of its components in their current state.

    32. Question 32. What Is The Difference Between Setting An Immediate=true On A Button And Immediate=true On A Text Field?

      Answer :

      When immediate is true on a button, the command’s action and ActionListeners, including the default ActionListener provided by the JavaServer Faces implementation, will be executed during Apply Request Values phase of the request processing lifecycle, rather than waiting until the Invoke Application phase.

      In case of a text field, by default, values are converted and validated together in the Process Validators phase. However, if you need access to the value of a component during Apply Request Values – for example, if you need to get the value from an actionListener on an immediate commandButton – then setting this to "immediate" makes that possible.

      Life Cycle for Immediate="true" on input component is

       Restore View->Apply Request Values->Process Validations->Update Model->Invoke App->Render Response

      Life Cycle for Immediate="true" on command component is

              Restore View->Apply Request Values->Render Response.

    33. Question 33. What Is Inter-portlet Communication?

      Answer :

      Inter-portlet communication is achieved when an action in one portlet triggers a response in the second portlet. Its a communication bridge between two portlets. For eg, one portlet contains a checkbox containing list of products. When i choose a product from the list and click on submit, the other portlet displays the details of the respective product.

    34. Question 34. What Is Meta Data Commit During Life Cycle Phase Of Adf What Happens Here?

      Answer :

      The metadata changes are written to the MDS repository after the JSF Invoke Application phase in JSF life cycle.

    35. Question 35. In Case Of Java Control Or Ejb Does It Have A Datacontrol.dcx File?

      Answer :

      datacontrols.dcx exists when you create custom data controls based on POJOs, web services, EJBs and the like. It describes or stores the metadata about the data control, essentially the wiring required to make the underlying service (e.g. POJOs, web services) exposed through the data control palette, and the runtime settings so the View Controller layer knows how to make use of it.

    36. Question 36. What Are Contextual Events?

      Answer :

      Contextual event ,in simple terms is a way to communicate between taskflows.Sometimes we have taskflow open in a region and have to get some values from that taskflow .This scenario can be achieved by contextual event.

      Contextual Event have two parts:

      Publisher Event (Producer)- As button or any component that can raise event.

      Handler Event (Customer)- that listens and process event published by producer.

    37. Question 37. What Are Various Components In Adf?

      Answer :

      Oracle ADF has following components:

      1. ADF Business Components: VO, EO & AM
      2. ADF Model : DataBinding (.cpx, .xml) & DataControls(.dcx)
      3. ADF View: JSP, JSF, ADF Faces etc.
      4. ADF Controller: Task flows (adf-config.xml), faces-config.xml

    38. Question 38. In Which Xml Do You Configure The Skin For Your Framework Application?

      Answer :

      in trinidad-config.xml file.

    39. Question 39. How Do You Decide Whether The Application Should Be Deployed As An Ear Or A War?

      Answer :

      If the application contains run-time customizations using MDS, it must be bundles as an EAR. For simple webcenter portal application with no such customizations, WAR can be created.

    40. Question 40. What Is The Purpose Of Jazn-data.xml?

      Answer :

      This file is used for defining the permissions and privileges for various groups of users on various task flows created in the application.

    41. Question 41. Write Code To Access The Current Row And Or The View Object Inside Your Bean.?

      Answer :

      code to access the current row and or the view object inside your bean:

      BindingContainer bc = BindingContext.getCurrent().getCurrentBindingsEntry();
      DCBindingContainer dcbc = (DCBindingContainer) bc;
      DCIteratorBinding lBinding = dcbc.findIteratorBinding("EmployeesViewIterator");
      EmployeesViewRow row = (EmployeesViewRow) lBinding.getCurrentRow();
      EmployeesView view = (EmployeesView) lBinding.getViewObject();

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