This section describes the character set conversions that can take place during export and import operations.
Character Set Conversion
The following sections describe character conversion for CHAR and NCHAR data.
Up to three character set conversions may be required for character data during an export/import operation:
To minimize data loss due to character set conversions, it is advisable to ensure thatthe export database, the export user session, the import user session, and the importdatabase all use the same character set.
Data of datatypes NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, and NCLOB are written to the export file directly in the national character set of the source database. If the national character set of the source database is different than the national character set of the import database, a conversion is performed.
Import and Single-Byte Character Sets
Some 8-bit characters can be lost (that is, converted to 7-bit equivalents) when you import an 8-bit character set export file. This occurs if the machine on which the import occurs has a native 7-bit character set, or the NLS_LANG operating system environment variable is set to a 7-bit character set. Most often, this is apparent when accented characters lose the accent mark.
To avoid this unwanted conversion, you can set the NLS_LANG operating system environment variable to be that of the export file character set.
When importing an Oracle Version 5 or 6 export file with a character set different from that of the native operating system or the setting for NLS_LANG, you must set the CHARSET import parameter to specify the character set of the export file.
Import and Multibyte Character Sets
For multibyte character sets, Import can convert data to the user-session character set only if the ratio of the width of the widest character in the import character set to the width of the smallest character in the export character set is 1. If the ratio is not 1, the user-session character set should be set to match the export character set, so that Import does no conversion.
During the conversion, any characters in the export file that have no equivalent in the target character set are replaced with a default character. (The default character is defined by the target character set.) To guarantee 100% conversion, the target character set must be a superset (or equivalent) of the source character set.
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