Monitoring and Tuning the Database Resource Manager - Oracle 10g

To effectively monitor and tune the Database Resource Manager, you must design a representative environment. The Database Resource Manager works best in large production environments in which system utilization is high. If a test places insufficient load on the system, measured CPU allocations can be very different from the allocations specified in the active resource plan. This is because the Database Resource Manager does not attempt to enforce CPU allocation percentage limits as long as consumer groups are getting the resources they need.

Creating the Environment

To create a representative environment, there must be sufficient load (demand for CPU resources) to make CPU resources scarce. If the following rules are followed, the test environment should generate actual (measured) resource allocations that match those specified in the active resource plan.

  1. Create the minimum number of concurrently running processes required to generate sufficient load. This is the larger of:
    • Four processes for each consumer group
    • 1.5 * (number of processors) for each consumer group. If the result is not an integer, round up.
  2. Each and every process must be capable of consuming all of the CPU resources allocated to the consumer group in which it runs. Write resource intensive programs that continue to spin no matter what happens. This can be as simple as:
BEGIN DECLARE m NUMBER; BEGIN FOR i IN 1..100000 LOOP FOR j IN 1..100000 LOOP m := sqrt(4567); END LOOP; END LOOP; END; END; /

Why Is This Necessary to Produce Expected Results?

When every group can secure as much CPU resources as it demands, the Database Resource Manager first seeks to maximize system throughput, not to enforce allocation percentages. For example, consider the following conditions:

  • There is only one process available to run for each consumer group.
  • Each process runs continuously.
  • There are four CPUs.

In this case, the measured CPU allocation to each consumer group will be 25%, no matter what the allocations specified in the active resource plan.

Another factor determines the calculation in (1) in the preceding section. Processor affinity scheduling at the operating system level can distort CPU allocation on underutilized systems. This is explained in the following paragraphs.

Until the number of concurrently running processes reaches a certain level, typical operating system scheduling algorithms will prevent full utilization. The Database Resource Manager controls CPU usage by restricting the number of running processes. By deciding which processes are allowed to run and for what duration, the Database Resource Manager controls CPU resource allocation. When a CPU has resources available, and other processors are fully utilized, the operating system migrates processes to the underutilized processor, but not immediately.

With processor affinity, the operating system waits (for a time) to migrate processes,
"hoping" that another process will be dispatched to run instead of forcing process migration from one CPU to another. On a fully loaded system with enough processes waiting, this strategy will work. In large production environments, processor affinity increases performance significantly, because invalidating the current CPU cache and then loading the new one is quite expensive. Since processes have processor affinity on most platforms, more processes than CPUs for each consumer group must be run. Otherwise, full system utilization is not possible.

Monitoring Results

Use the V$RSRC _CONSUMER _GROUP view to monitor CPU usage. It provides the cumulative amount of CPU time consumed by all sessions in each consumer group. It also provides a number of other measu res helpful for tuning.


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