Node.js File System - Node.js

What is Node.js File System?

Node implements File I/O using simple covers about standard POSIX functions. The Node File System (fs) module can be imported using the next syntax –

Synchronous vs Asynchronous

Every method within the fs module has synchronous in addition to asynchronous forms. Asynchronous strategies take the last parameter as the of entirety function callback and the primary parameter of the callback feature as an error. It is better to use an asynchronous method as opposed to the asynchronous method, as the former by no means blocks a program at some stage in its execution, whereas the second does.

Example

Create a text file named input.txt with the following content −

Let us create a js file named main.js with the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

Verify the Output.

The following sections in this chapter provide a set of good examples on major File I/O methods.

Open a File

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to open a file in asynchronous mode −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • path − This is the string having file name including path.
  • flags − Flags indicate the behavior of the file to be opened. All possible values have been mentioned below.
  • mode − It sets the file mode (permission and sticky bits), but only if the file was created. It defaults to 0666, readable and writeable.
  • callback − This is the callback function which gets two arguments (err, fd).

Flags

Flags for read/write operations are −

Flag

Description

r

Open file for reading. An exception occurs if the file does not exist.

r+

Open file for reading and writing. An exception occurs if the file does not exist.

rs

Open file for reading in synchronous mode.

rs+

Open file for reading and writing, asking the OS to open it synchronously. See notes for 'rs' about using this with caution.

w

Open file for writing. The file is created (if it does not exist) or truncated (if it exists).

wx

Like 'w' but fails if the path exists.

w+

Open file for reading and writing. The file is created (if it does not exist) or truncated (if it exists).

wx+

Like 'w+' but fails if path exists.

a

Open file for appending. The file is created if it does not exist.

ax

Like 'a' but fails if the path exists.

a+

Open file for reading and appending. The file is created if it does not exist.

ax+

Like 'a+' but fails if the the path exists.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code to open a file input.txt for reading and writing.

Now run the main.js to see the result −

Verify the Output.

Get File Information

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to get the information about a file −

Parameters

Right here is the description of the parameters used −

  • Route − that is the string having report name which includes course.
  • Callback − that is the callback function which receives two arguments (err, stats) in which states is an object of fs.Stats type which is printed below in the instance.

Other than the important attributes that are published under in the example, there are numerous useful techniques available in fs.Stats class which can be used to check file type. Those methods are given within the following desk.

Method

Description

stats.isFile()

Returns true if file type of a simple file.

stats.isDirectory()

Returns true if file type of a directory.

stats.isBlockDevice()

Returns true if file type of a block device.

stats.isCharacterDevice()

Returns true if file type of a character device.

stats.isSymbolicLink()

Returns true if file type of a symbolic link.

stats.isFIFO()

Returns true if file type of a FIFO.

stats.isSocket()

Returns true if file type of asocket.


Example

Let us create a js file named main.js with the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Writing a File

Syntax

Following is the syntax of one of the methods to write into a file −

This method will over-write the file if the file already exists. If you want to write into an existing file then you should use another method available.

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • path − This is the string having the file name including path.
  • data − This is the String or Buffer to be written into the file.
  • options − The third parameter is an object which will hold {encoding, mode, flag}. By default. encoding is utf8, mode is octal value 0666. and flag is 'w'
  • callback − This is the callback function which gets a single parameter err that returns an error in case of any writing error.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Reading a File

Syntax

Following is the syntax of one of the methods to read from a file −

This method will use file descriptor to read the file. If you want to read the file directly using the file name, then you should use another method available.

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • fd − This is the file descriptor returned by fs.open().
  • buffer − This is the buffer that the data will be written to.
  • offset − This is the offset in the buffer to start writing at.
  • length − This is an integer specifying the number of bytes to read.
  • position − This is an integer specifying where to begin reading from in the file. If position is null, data will be read from the current file position.
  • callback − This is the callback function which gets the three arguments, (err, bytesRead, buffer).

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js with the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Closing a File

Syntax

Following is the syntax to close an opened file −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • fd − This is the file descriptor returned by file fs.open() method.
  • callback − This is the callback function No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Truncate a File

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to truncate an opened file −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • fd − This is the file descriptor returned by fs.open().
  • len − This is the length of the file after which the file will be truncated.
  • callback − This is the callback function No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Delete a File

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to delete a file −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • path − This is the file name including path.
  • callback − This is the callback function No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Create a Directory

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to create a directory −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • path − This is the directory name including path.
  • mode − This is the directory permission to be set. Defaults to 0777.
  • callback − This is the callback function No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −


Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Read a Directory

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to read a directory −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • path − This is the directory name including path.
  • callback − This is the callback function which gets two arguments (err, files) where files is an array of the names of the files in the directory excluding '.' and '..'.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Remove a Directory

Syntax

Following is the syntax of the method to remove a directory −

Parameters

Here is the description of the parameters used −

  • path − This is the directory name including path.
  • callback − This is the callback function No argume nts other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

Example

Let us create a js file named main.js having the following code −

Now run the main.js to see the result −

$ node main.js

Verify the Output.

Methods Reference

Following is a reference of File System module available in Node.js. For more detail you can refer to the official documentation.

S.No

Method & Description

1

fs.rename(oldPath, newPath, callback)

Asynchronous rename(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

2

fs.ftruncate(fd, len, callback)

Asynchronous ftruncate(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

3

fs.ftruncateSync(fd, len)

Synchronous ftruncate().

4

fs.truncate(path, len, callback)

Asynchronous truncate(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

5

fs.truncateSync(path, len)
Synchronous truncate().

6

fs.chown(path, uid, gid, callback)

Asynchronous chown(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

7

fs.chownSync(path, uid, gid)

Synchronous chown().

8

fs.fchown(fd, uid, gid, callback)

Asynchronous fchown(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

9

fs.fchownSync(fd, uid, gid)

Synchronous fchown().

10

fs.lchown(path, uid, gid, callback)

Asynchronous lchown(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

11

fs.lchownSync(path, uid, gid)

Synchronous lchown().

12

fs.chmod(path, mode, callback)

Asynchronous chmod(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

13

fs.chmodSync(path, mode)

Synchronous chmod().

14

fs.fchmod(fd, mode, callback)

Asynchronous fchmod(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

15

fs.fchmodSync(fd, mode)

Synchronous fchmod().

16

fs.lchmod(path, mode, callback)

Asynchronous lchmod(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback. Only available on Mac OS X.

17

fs.lchmodSync(path, mode)

Synchronous lchmod().

18

fs.stat(path, callback)

Asynchronous stat(). The callback gets two arguments (err, stats) where stats is an fs.Stats object.

19

fs.lstat(path, callback)

Asynchronous lstat(). The callback gets two arguments (err, stats) where stats is an fs.Stats object. lstat() is identical to stat(), except that if path is a symbolic link, then the link itself is stat-ed, not the file that it refers to.

20

fs.fstat(fd, callback)

Asynchronous fstat(). The callback gets two arguments (err, stats) where stats is an fs.Stats object. fstat() is identical to stat(), except that the file to be stat-ed is specified by the file descriptor fd.

21

fs.statSync(path)

Synchronous stat(). Returns an instance of fs.Stats.

22

fs.lstatSync(path)

Synchronous lstat(). Returns an instance of fs.Stats.

23

fs.fstatSync(fd)

Synchronous fstat(). Returns an instance of fs.Stats.

24

fs.link(srcpath, dstpath, callback)

Asynchronous link(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

25

fs.linkSync(srcpath, dstpath)

Synchronous link().

26

fs.symlink(srcpath, dstpath[, type], callback)

Asynchronous symlink(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback. The type argument can be set to 'dir', 'file', or 'junction' (default is 'file') and is only available on Windows (ignored on other platforms). Note that Windows junction points require the destination path to be absolute. When using 'junction', the destination argument will automatically be normalized to absolute path.

27

fs.symlinkSync(srcpath, dstpath[, type])

Synchronous symlink().

28

fs.readlink(path, callback)

Asynchronous readlink(). The callback gets two arguments (err, linkString).

29

fs.realpath(path[, cache], callback)

Asynchronous realpath(). The callback gets two arguments (err, resolvedPath). May use process.cwd to resolve relative paths. cache is an object literal of mapped paths that can be used to force a specific path resolution or avoid additional fs.stat calls for known real paths.

30

fs.realpathSync(path[, cache])

Synchronous realpath(). Returns the resolved path.

31

fs.unlink(path, callback)

Asynchronous unlink(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

32

fs.unlinkSync(path)

Synchronous unlink().

33

fs.rmdir(path, callback)

Asynchronous rmdir(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

34

fs.rmdirSync(path)

Synchronous rmdir().

35

fs.mkdir(path[, mode], callback)

Asynchronous mkdir(2). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback. mode defaults to 0777.

36

fs.mkdirSync(path[, mode])

Synchronous mkdir().

37

fs.readdir(path, callback)

Asynchronous readdir(3). Reads the contents of a directory. The callback gets two arguments (err, files) where files is an array of the names of the files in the directory excluding '.' and '..'.

38

fs.readdirSync(path)

Synchronous readdir(). Returns an array of filenames excluding '.' and '..'.

39

fs.close(fd, callback)

Asynchronous close(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

40

fs.closeSync(fd)

Synchronous close().

41

fs.open(path, flags[, mode], callback)

Asynchronous file open.

42

fs.openSync(path, flags[, mode])

Synchronous version of fs.open().

43

fs.utimes(path, atime, mtime, callback)

44

fs.utimesSync(path, atime, mtime)

Change file timestamps of the file referenced by the supplied path.

45

fs.futimes(fd, atime, mtime, callback)

46

fs.futimesSync(fd, atime, mtime)

Change the file timestamps of a file referenced by the supplied file descriptor.

47

fs.fsync(fd, callback)

Asynchronous fsync. No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback.

48

fs.fsyncSync(fd)

Synchronous fsync.

49

fs.write(fd, buffer, offset, length[, position], callback)

Write buffer to the file specified by fd.

50

fs.write(fd, data[, position[, encoding]], callback)

Write data to the file specified by fd. If data is not a Buffer instance then the value will be coerced to a string.

51

fs.writeSync(fd, buffer, offset, length[, position])

Synchronous versions of fs.write(). Returns the number of bytes written.

52

fs.writeSync(fd, data[, position[, encoding]])

Synchronous versions of fs.write(). Returns the number of bytes written.

53

fs.read(fd, buffer, offset, length, position, callback)

Read data from the file specified by fd.

54

fs.readSync(fd, buffer, offset, length, position)

Synchronous version of fs.read. Returns the number of bytesRead.

55

fs.readFile(filename[, options], callback)

Asynchronously reads the entire contents of a file.

56

fs.readFileSync(filename[, options])

Synchronous version of fs.readFile. Returns the contents of the filename.

57

fs.writeFile(filename, data[, options], callback)

Asynchronously writes data to a file, replacing the file if it already exists. data can be a string or a buffer.

58

fs.writeFileSync(filename, data[, options])

The synchronous version of fs.writeFile.

59

fs.appendFile(filename, data[, options], callback)

Asynchronously append data to a file, creating the file if it does not exist. data can be a string or a buffer.

60

fs.appendFileSync(filename, data[, options])

The synchronous version of fs.appendFile.

61

fs.watchFile(filename[, options], listener)

Watch for changes on filename. The callback listener will be called each time the file is accessed.

62

fs.unwatchFile(filename[, listener])

Stop watching for changes on filename. If listener is specified, only that particular listener is removed. Otherwise, all listeners are removed and you have effectively stopped watching filename.

63

fs.watch(filename[, options][, listener])

Watch for changes on filename, where filename is either a file or an directory. The returned object is an fs.FSWatcher.

64

fs.exists(path, callback)

Test whether or not the given path exists by checking with the file system. Then call the callback argument with either true or false.

65

fs.existsSync(path)

Synchronous version of fs.exists.

66

fs.access(path[, mode], callback)

Tests a user's permissions for the file specified by path. mode is an optional integer that specifies the accessibility checks to be performed.

67

fs.accessSync(path[, mode])

Synchronous version of fs.access. It throws if any accessibility checks fail, and does nothing otherwise.

68

fs.createReadStream(path[, options])

Returns a new ReadStream object.

69

fs.createWriteStream(path[, options])

Returns a new WriteStream object.

70

fs.symlink(srcpath, dstpath[, type], callback)

Asynchronous symlink(). No arguments other than a possible exception are given to the completion callback. The type argument can be set to 'dir', 'file', or 'junction' (default is 'file') and is only available on Windows (ignored on other platforms). Note that Windows junction points require the destination path to be absolute. When using 'junction', the destination argument will automatically be normalized to absolute path.

All rights reserved © 2018 Wisdom IT Services India Pvt. Ltd DMCA.com Protection Status

Node.js Topics