Recall that MPEG - 4 is aimed at compression using objects. MPEG - 4 audio has several interesting features, such as 3D localization of sound, integration of MIDI, text - to - speech, different codecs for different bitrates, and use of the sophisticated MPEG - 2 AAC codec. However, newer MPEG standards are mainly aimed at "search": how can we find objects, assuming that multimedia is indeed coded in terms of objects?
The formulation of MPEG - 21 is an ongoing effort, aimed at driving a standardization effort for a Multimedia Framework from a consumer's perspective, particularly addressing interoperability. However, we can say something more specific about how MPEG - 7 means to describe a structured model of audio, so as to promote ease of search for audio objects.
Officially called a method for Multimedia Content Description Interface, MPEG - 7 provides a means of standardizing metadata for audiovisual multimedia sequences. MPEG - 7 is meant to represent information about multimedia information.
The objective, in terms of audio, is to facilitate the representation and search for sound content, perhaps through the tune or other descriptors. Therefore, researchers are laboring to develop descriptors that efficiently describe, and can help find, specific audio in files. These might require human or automatic content analysis and might be aimed not just at low - level structures, such as melody, but at actually grasping information regarding structural and semantic content.
An example application supported by MPEG - 7 is automatic speech recognition (ASR). Language understanding is also an objective for MPEG - 7 "content". In theory, MPEG - 7 would allow searching on spoken and visual events: "Find me the part where Hamlet says, 'To be or not to be.'" However, the objective of delineating a complete, structured audio model for MPEG - 7 is by no means complete.
Nevertheless, low - level features are important. A recent summary of such work sets out one set of such descriptors.
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Introduction To Multimedia
Multimedia Authoring And Tools
Graphics And Image Data Representations
Colour In Image And Video
Fundamental Concepts In Video
Basics Of Digital Audio
Lossless Compression Algorithm
Lossy Compression Algorithms
Image Compression Standards
Basic Video Compression Techniques
Mpeg Video Coding I – Mpeg 1 And 2
Mpeg Video Coding Ii- Mpeg-4, 7, And Beyon
Basic Audio Compression Techniques
Mpeg Audio Compression
Computer And Multimedia Networks
Multimedia Network Communications And Applications
Content-based Retrieval In Digital Libraries
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